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LOGO-The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory  To detect a change in distance much smaller than the proton requires great precision. Each LIGO installation is a laser interferometer made up of two underground pipes, each 1.3 meters (4.3 feet) wide and 4 km (2.5 miles) long, set in an L-shape. The inside of the pipes is a vacuum. When a gravitational wave passes through LIGO, one arm of the instrument gets longer and the other gets shorter. A laser beam is split in half, sent down the two pipes, reflected back, and then recombined so the two beams cancel each other out in destructive interference if there is no gravitational wave. If there is a gravitational wave, the beams won’t cancel each other out. A 4-km long beam is still not enough to detect a gravitational wave, so the beams are bounced back and forth about 400 times so the light travels a distance of 1,600 km (1,000 miles).The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) consists of two widely separated 4 km laser interferometers designed to detect gravitational waves from distant astrophysical sources in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 10 kHz. The first observation run of the Advanced LIGO detectors started in September 2015 and ended in January 2016. A strain sensitivity of better than 10−23/Hz−−−√ was achieved around 100 Hz. Understanding both the fundamental and the technical noise sources was critical for increasing the observable volume in the universe. #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #bigbang #ligo
LARGE HADRON COLLIDER(LHC)  The Large Hadron Collider was first turned on in August of 2008, then stopped for repairs in September until November 2009. Taking all of those costs into consideration, the total cost of finding the Higgs boson ran about $13.25 billion. That’s a large amount, but there are over 50 billionaires on the Forbes list actually worth more than that. The money itself is provided by the CERN member countries, and a little over 70% of the annual budget is provided by Germany, the U.K., Italy, France and Spain. The money for the experiments also comes from large institutions such as universities and observer governments such as the United States, India, and Russia.  The gigantic particle accelerator just now being completed outside Geneva at the European Organization for Nuclear Research -- known as CERN -- is set to be switched on soon. And some are concerned that, once the research facility begins bashing subatomic particles together at 99.999991 percent of the speed of light, dangerous black holes could be created and spread out of control.The fear has spread fast and far in cyberspace. In addition, a scientist at the University of Tübingen, Dr. Otto E. Rössler, has lent a certain amount of academic weight to the skepticism. So much so that a group of German physicists has now published an open letter carrying assurances that the particle accelerator, known as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is in fact safe."There is no way that the LHC will produce black holes capable of swallowing up the Earth," reads the letter from the Committee for Elementary Particle Physics (KET), a group of leading quantum physicists in Germany. "This claim is based on extremely well tested theories of physics and on observations of the cosmos." #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #bigbang #thermodynamics #neutronstars #antimatter
The most detailed simulation of the universe shows how galaxies evolved since the dawn of time.  A group of astrophysicists have used the Hazel Hen machine, Germany's fastest mainframe computer, to create the most detailed simulation ever of the entire universe from almost the beginning of time.Called Illustris: The Next Generation, or IllustrisTNG, the simulation models a cube-shaped universe that is actually much smaller than our own. But it follows the formation of millions of galaxies in a representative region of a universe that is almost one billion light-years per side. The scale and detail of the simulation allows astronomers to study how galaxies form, evolve, and grow, as stars are born and live out their lives."When we observe galaxies using a telescope, we can only measure certain quantities," team member Shy Genel from the Flatiron Institute's Center for Computational Astrophysics said in a statement. "With the simulation, we can track all the properties for all these galaxies.And not just how the galaxy looks now,but its entire formation history."Astronomers frequently use computer modeling to generate simulations of things like galaxy formation, dark matter, and stellar evolution. But the team says IllustrisTNG pushes these types of simulations to new limits — in size, resolution, and physical fidelity. #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #bigbang #thermodynamics #neutronstars #antimatter
ANTIMATTER  antimatter is not something that you can just whip up in a chemistry lab by combining random reagents from the shelves.Enormous amounts of energy are needed to produce antimatter. According to  Albert Einstein’s famous formula, E=mc^2, mass is nothing but energy in a very condensed form, which means that matter can be transformed into energy and energy can be transformed into matter.  For instance, during the combustion of stars, such as in our Sun, 600 million tons of hydrogen turn into 595 million tons of helium and 5 million tons of energy every second! The technique of creating antimatter involves accelerating particles smaller than the atom (i.e., subatomic particles) to high speeds and smashing them against a metal block or against one another. Some of the energy released in the crash transforms into matter and antimatter. However, in order to achieve this effect, the subatomic particles (usually protons) have to move at speeds very close to the speed of light. This is achieved in  machines called Particle Accelerators. These are enormous devices that accelerate particles to high speeds by means of electric fields. CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Physics, hosts the largest and most powerful accelerator in the world. It is the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), an underground  ring that is 10 km in diameter and 27 km in length at a depth of 100 meters underground near Geneva, Switzerland. #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #bigbang #thermodynamics #neutronstars #antimatter
BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE (BEC)  A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero. Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point microscopic quantum phenomena, particularly wavefunction interference, become apparent. A BEC is formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density, about one-hundred-thousandth the density of normal air, to ultra-low temperatures.Satyendra Nath Bose first sent a paper to Einstein on the quantum statistics of light quanta (now called photons), in which he derived Planck's quantum radiation law without any reference to classical physics. Einstein was impressed, translated the paper himself from English to German and submitted it for Bose to the Zeitschrift für Physik, which published it in 1924.(The Einstein manuscript, once believed to be lost, was found in a library at Leiden University in 2005.). Einstein then extended Bose's ideas to matter in two other papers.The result of their efforts is the concept of a Bose gas, governed by Bose–Einstein statistics, which describes the statistical distribution of identical particles with integer spin, now called bosons. Bosons, which include the photon as well as atoms such as helium-4(4He), are allowed to share a quantum state. Einstein proposed that cooling bosonic atoms to a very low temperature would cause them to fall (or "condense") into the lowest accessible quantum state, resulting in a new form of matter.In 1938 Fritz London proposed BEC as a mechanism for superfluidity  in 4He and superconductivity.On June 5, 1995 the first gaseous condensate was produced by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman at the University of Colorado at Boulder NIST–JILA lab, in a gas of rubidium atoms cooled to 170 nanokelvins(nK).Shortly thereafter, Wolfgang Ketterle at MITdemonstrated important BEC properties. For their achievements
STRING THEORY  Four forces of nature walk into the beginning of the known universe. Thankfully, this is not the third sequel to the box-office dud, Force of Nature. Although the consequences of any of the following going even slightly awry would be just as big of a disaster.Nature has four fields: Gravity, Electromagnetism, Strong Nuclear Force, and Weak Nuclear Force. As stated above, string theory is an attempt to explain the behavior of all matter under one umbrella – and these four are the keys. By examining the behavior of each field, scientists have deduced that, although we cannot directly experience these other dimensions, there is at least abstract evidence, such as gravitational anomalies during the Big Bang, that could eventually prove their existence.So, if nothing existed in our universe prior to the Big Bang – then what other gravitational forces could be pulling on it? This is where string theory strikes again: if there are other dimensions and parallel universes existing outside our own, then, in theory, it's possible their gravitational forces could have an effect on the beginning of ours.  #universe #bigbang #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #darkmatter #stringtheory
GRAVITATIONAL WAVES  Gravitational waves are ripples of space that are produced when large masses such as black holes collide. By the time the ripples reach Earth, they are much smaller than an atom. Atoms are the basic units of matter, measuring around 100 picometres (a ten-billionth of a metre).A popular way to describe the scale of everything around us is to use the "powers of 10".To get to each new stage, the previous stage is multiplied by 10. So, if the starting point is a one-metre square frame of view, the next stage 101 is 10 metres square, and so on.Which brings us back to gravitational waves, which are 10-18. That is smaller than quarks in a proton of a carbon atom, which are comparatively giant at 10-16.The Australian National University's Professor David McClelland led the Australian contingent of scientists involved in measuring the ripple of space caused by the merging of two black holes 1.3 billion light years away. #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #bigbang #ligo #gravitationalwaves
Images taken by VOYAGER-1  In 1977, NASA launched two Voyager probes, equipped with golden records describing human accomplishment, on a mission to explore the farthest reaches of the solar system. Each record catalogued our music, our greetings, our art and photography.  Forty years later, both spacecrafts are still hurtling through space, exploring parts of the universe where nothing from Earth has visited before. Voyager 1 is now in interstellar space, 13 billion miles away from Earth. Voyager 2 is passing through the heliosheath, the outermost layer of the heliosphere, before it, too, reaches interstellar space.  Last week, in an amazing feat of engineering, NASA engineers turned on Voyager 1’s backup thrusters after they’d been dormant for 37 years. The thrusters will help reorient the spacecraft’s antenna back to Earth, so we can receive its signal for just a little longer.  #universe #bigbang #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #darkmatter #voyager1
0(ZERO)  First, numbers are first learned as part of counting. Now, some computer scientists start counting at 0, but back then there were no computers so everyone acted normal and started counting at 1. So the numbers are 1, 2, 3, 4 …. Not 0. Why have a symbol for it? Second, 0 is used as a place value marker. But place value is another weird hard concept. You mean …. 1 sometimes means 10 and sometimes 100 and sometimes 100,000 ???? Are you NUTS? That’s crazy! I means 1, V means 5, X means 10, L means 50 …. that’s so much simpler! In so much of elementary school math, we forget that the concepts we take for granted (place value, negative numbers, fractions ….) are not elementary at all, and puzzled people for a long time.  #0 #universe #bigbang #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #darkmatter
SOLAR SYSTEM  The planets in our solar system orbit around the sun. One orbit of the Earth takes one year. Meanwhile, our entire solar system – our sun with its family of planets, moon, asteroid and comets – orbits the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Our sun and solar system move at about about 500,000 miles an hour (800,000 km/hr) in this huge orbit. So in 90 seconds, for example, we all move some 12,500 miles (20,000 km) in orbit around the galaxy’s center.Our Milky Way galaxy is a big place. Even at this blazing speed, it takes the sun approximately 225-250 million years to complete one journey around the galaxy’s center.This amount of time – the time it takes us to orbit the center of the galaxy – is sometimes called a cosmic year.By the way, in the past when we’ve talked about this subject, people have commented on the difference between the words rotate and revolve. The word revolvemeans to orbit around another body. Earth revolves (or orbits) around the sun. The sun revolves around the center of the Milky Way galaxy.On the other hand, rotate means to spin on an axis. The Earth rotates every 24 hours. The sun rotates, but not at a single rate across its surface. The movements of the sunspots indicate that the sun rotates once every 27 days at its equator, but only once in 31 days at its poles.  #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #bigbang #thermodynamics #neutronstars#solarsystem
CMB Temperature  Astronomers have discovered some tiny fluctuations in the temperature of the background radiation. Big Bang cosmologies help them to predict how the temperature changed with time. According to Big Bang, the temperature of the microwave background increases linearly with redshift, a measure of the distance to faraway objects. To test these prediction, Antoinette Songaila of the Institute for Astronomy in Hawaii and her co-workers measured the temperature of the background radiation at a time corresponding to 4 billion years after the Big Bang. Within experimented errors, the team found that one cloud -- at 7.58 kelvin -- matches the temperature predicted for the microwave background at that distance. The other cloud has a temperature some 3 kelvin higher. Cowie notes that the number give only an upper limit on the microwave background. Local effects also contribute to the excitement of carbon atoms in each cloud, and this may explain the higher temperature in the second cloud. As a whole, the measurement are consistent with the Big Bang theory.  #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #bigbang #thermodynamics #neutronstars #cosmicmicrowavebackground
QUANTUM COMPUTER(swipe Left👉) In 1982, the Nobel prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman thought up the idea of a 'quantum computer', a computer that uses the effects of quantum mechanics to its advantage . For some time, the notion of a quantum computer was primarily of theoretical interest only, but recent developments have bought the idea to everybody's attention. One such development was the invention of an algorithm to factor large numbers on a quantum computer, by Peter Shor (Bell Laboratories). By using this algorithm, a quantum computer would be able to crack codes much more quickly than any ordinary (or classical) computer could. In fact a quantum computer capable of performing Shor's algorithm would be able to break current cryptography techniques in a matter of seconds. With the motivation provided by this algorithm, the topic of quantum computing has gathered momentum and researchers around the world are racing to be the first to create a practical quantum computer. In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum information—the quantum analogue of the classical binary bit. A qubit is a two-state quantum-mechanical system, such as the polarization of a single photon: here the two states are vertical polarization and horizontal polarization.  In a classical system, a bit would have to be in one state or the other. However, quantum mechanics allows the qubit to be in a superposition of both states at the same time, a property that is fundamental to quantum computing #universe #bigbang #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #darkmatter #mulitivese #quantumcomputer
AFFECTNESS  When an electron meets its antimatter twin, a positron, the two are annihilated in a tiny flash of energy. Two photons fly away from the blast.  Subatomic particles like photons and quarks have a quality known as “spin”. It’s not that they’re really spinning – it’s not clear that would even mean anything at that level – but they behave as if they do. When two are created simultaneously the direction of their spin has to cancel each other out: one doing the opposite of the other.  Due to the unpredictability of quantum behaviour, it is impossible to say in advance which will go “anticlockwise” and the other “clockwise”. More than that, until the spin of one is observed, they are both doing both.  It gets weirder, however. When you do observe one, it will suddenly be going clockwise or anticlockwise. And whichever way it is going, its twin will start spinning the other way, instantly, even if it is on the other side of the universe. This has actually been shown to happen in experiment (albeit on the other side of a laboratory, not a universe). #universe #bigbang #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #darkmatter #mulitivese
WORMHOLE  Wormholes were first theorized in 1916, though that wasn't what they were called at the time. While reviewing another physicist's solution to the equations in Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, Austrian physicist Ludwig Flamm realized another solution was possible. He described a "white hole," a theoretical time reversal of a black hole. Entrances to both black and white holes could be connected by a space-time conduit. In 1935, Einstein and physicist Nathan Rosen used the theory of general relativity to elaborate on the idea, proposing the existence of "bridges" through space-time. These bridges connect two different points in space-time, theoretically creating a shortcut that could reduce travel time and distance. The shortcuts came to be called Einstein-Rosen bridges, or wormholes."The whole thing is very hypothetical at this point," said Stephen Hsu, a professor of theoretical physics at the University of Oregon, told our sister site, LiveScience. "No one thinks we're going to find a wormhole anytime soon." Wormholes contain two mouths, with a throat connecting the two. The mouths would most likely be spheroidal. The throat might be a straight stretch, but it could also wind around, taking a longer path than a more conventional route might require. Einstein's theory of general relativity mathematically predicts the existence of wormholes, but none have been discovered to date. A negative mass wormhole might be spotted by the way its gravity affects light that passes by. #universe #bigbang #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #darkmatter #wormhole
ACCURATE MEASUREMENT OF DARK MATTER STRUCTURE  If you think of the seed as the early universe, and the tree as the universe the way it looks now, you have an idea of what the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration has just done. In a presentation today at the American Physical Society Division of Particles and Fields meeting at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, DES scientists will unveil the most accurate measurement ever made of the present large-scale structure of the universe.  These measurements of the amount and "clumpiness" (or distribution) of dark matter in the present-day cosmos were made with a precision that, for the first time, rivals that of inferences from the early universe by the European Space Agency's orbiting Planck observatory. The new DES result (the tree, in the above metaphor) is close to "forecasts" made from the Planck measurements of the distant past (the seed), allowing scientists to understand more about the ways the universe has evolved over 14 billion years. "This result is beyond exciting," said Scott Dodelson of Fermilab, one of the lead scientists on this result. "For the first time, we're able to see the current structure of the universe with the same clarity that we can see its infancy, and we can follow the threads from one to the other, confirming many predictions along the way." Most notably, this result supports the theory that 26 percent of the universe is in the form of mysterious dark matter and that space is filled with an also-unseen dark energy, which is causing the accelerating expansion of the universe and makes up 70 percent #universe #bigbang #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime #blackholes #timedelation #specialrelativity #darkmatter
STEPHEN HAWKING  The Stephen Hawking Centre for Theoretical Cosmology (the COSMOS group) focuses on the most extreme phenomena in the known universe - the Hot Big Bang, 14 billion years ago, and the collisions of black holes! The key to furthering our understanding of these cosmic events? Computers the sheer volume of data we must take into account to create models and test our theories is staggering Thankfully, the Cambridge Faculty of Mathematics has recently upgraded the COSMOS supercomputer, with the help of Hewlett Packard Enterprise.  Earlier this month, Hewett Packard Enterprise unveiled the newest addition to NUMA iron, the Superdome Flex, which is an upgrade from the SGI UV 300 platform that HPE sought when it bought SGI for $275 million last year. As we outlined in The Next Platform at the time, the system can scale from four to 32 sockets, is powered by Intel’s “Skylake” Xeon SP processors, supports 768 GB to 48 TB of memory, and includes the shiny new NUMAlink 8 interconnect combined with various firmware and other technologies from the vendor’s previous Superdome X servers to make something that combines the best of the SGI and HPE platforms.  The Superdome Flex is a big system, and it is the foundation of HPE’s efforts to be the key hardware supplier to the growing in-memory database market that is trying to balance lightning quick response against massive amounts of data. SAP with HANA, Oracle with its Database In-Memory, and Microsoft with its SQL Server are among the high-profile in-memory database vendors, and HPE says that about half of the SAP HANA deployments are running on its servers.  Now HPE is using the Superdome Flex to help scientists – notably including Stephen Hawking – to sort through 14 billion years of data to research the origins of the universe and the mysteries surrounding black holes. #universe #bigbang #generalrelativity #einstin #quantummechanics #quantumentanglement #physics #science #blackhole #spacetime