alcohol

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In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic drinks. An important class of alcohols, of which methanol and ethanol are the simplest members, includes all compounds for which the general formula is CnH2n+1OH. Simple monoalcohols that are the subject of this article include primary (RCH2OH), secondary (R2CHOH) and tertiary (R3COH) alcohols.

The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority. When a higher priority group is present in the compound, the prefix hydroxy- is used in its IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-IUPAC names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance is an alcohol. However, many substances that contain hydroxyl functional groups (particularly sugars, such as glucose and sucrose) have names which include neither the suffix -ol, nor the prefix hydroxy-.

The inflammable nature of the exhalations of wine was already known to ancient natural philosophers such as Aristotle (384–322 BCE), Theophrastus (c. 371–287 BCE), and Pliny the Elder (23/24–79 CE). However, this did not immediately lead to the isolation of alcohol, even despite the development of more advanced distillation techniques in second- and third-century Roman Egypt. An important recognition, first found in one of the writings attributed to Jābir ibn Ḥayyān (ninth century CE), was that by adding salt to boiling wine, which increases the wine's relative volatility, the flammability of the resulting vapors may be enhanced. The distillation of wine is attested in Arabic works attributed to al-Kindī (c. 801–873 CE) and to al-Fārābī (c. 872–950), and in the 28th book of al-Zahrāwī's (Latin: Abulcasis, 936–1013) Kitāb al-Taṣrīf (later translated into Latin as Liber servatoris). In the twelfth century, recipes for the production of aqua ardens ("burning water", i.e., alcohol) by distilling wine with salt started to appear in a number of Latin works, and by the end of the thirteenth century it had become a widely known substance among Western European chemists. Its medicinal properties were studied by Arnald of Villanova (1240–1311 CE) and John of Rupescissa (c. 1310–1366), the latter of whom regarded it as a life-preserving substance able to prevent all diseases (the aqua vitae or "water of life", also called by John the quintessence of wine).

The word "alcohol" is from the Arabic kohl (Arabic: الكحل‎, romanizedal-kuḥl), a powder used as an eyeliner. Al- is the Arabic definite article, equivalent to the in English. Alcohol was originally used for the very fine powder produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony trisulfide Sb
2
S
3
. It was considered to be the essence or "spirit" of this mineral. It was used as an antiseptic, eyeliner, and cosmetic. The meaning of alcohol was extended to distilled substances in general, and then narrowed to ethanol, when "spirits" was a synonym for hard liquor.

Bartholomew Traheron, in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo, introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" authors for "fine powder." Vigo wrote: "the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or (as I fynde it sometymes wryten) alcofoll, for moost fine poudre."

The 1657 Lexicon Chymicum, by William Johnson glosses the word as "antimonium sive stibium." By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine," the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia (1594) refers to "vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum". Johnson (1657) glosses alcohol vini as "quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat." The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" (the chemical known today as ethanol) in the 18th century and was extended to the class of substances so-called as "alcohols" in modern chemistry after 1850.

The term ethanol was invented in 1892, blending "ethane" with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol", which was generalized as a libfix.

IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important, especially in cases where the relative complexity of the molecule does not make such a systematic name unwieldy. In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ol, e.g., as in "ethanol" from the alkane chain name "ethane". When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the -ol: propan-1-ol for CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
OH
, propan-2-ol for CH
3
CH(OH)CH
3
. If a higher priority group is present (such as an aldehyde, ketone, or carboxylic acid), then the prefix hydroxy-is used, e.g., as in 1-hydroxy-2-propanone (CH
3
C(O)CH
2
OH
).

In cases where the OH functional group is bonded to an sp2 carbon on an aromatic ring the molecule is known as a phenol, and is named using the IUPAC rules for naming phenols.

In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g., methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol, depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the end or middle carbon on the straight propane chain. As described under systematic naming, if another group on the molecule takes priority, the alcohol moiety is often indicated using the "hydroxy-" prefix.

Alcohols are then classified into primary, secondary (sec-, s-), and tertiary (tert-, t-), based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl functional group. (The respective numeric shorthands 1°, 2°, and 3° are also sometimes used in informal settings.) The primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH. The simplest primary alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), for which R=H, and the next is ethanol, for which R=CH3, the methyl group. Secondary alcohols are those of the form RR'CHOH, the simplest of which is 2-propanol (R=R'=CH3). For the tertiary alcohols the general form is RR'R"COH. The simplest example is tert-butanol (2-methylpropan-2-ol), for which each of R, R', and R" is CH3. In these shorthands, R, R', and R" represent substituents, alkyl or other attached, generally organic groups.

In archaic nomenclature, alcohols can be named as derivatives of methanol using "-carbinol" as the ending. For instance, (CH3)3COH can be named trimethylcarbinol.

Alcohols have a long history of myriad uses. For simple mono-alcohols, which is the focus on this article, the following are most important industrial alcohols:

Methanol is the most common industrial alcohol, with about 12 million tons/y produced in 1980. The combined capacity of the other alcohols is about the same, distributed roughly equally.

With respect to acute toxicity, simple alcohols have low acute toxicities. Doses of several milliliters are tolerated. For pentanols, hexanols, octanols and longer alcohols, LD50 range from 2–5 g/kg (rats, oral). Methanol and ethanol are less acutely toxic. All alcohols are mild skin irritants.

The metabolism of methanol (and ethylene glycol) is affected by the presence of ethanol, which has a higher affinity for liver alcohol dehydrogenase. In this way methanol will be excreted intact in urine.

In general, the hydroxyl group makes alcohols polar. Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to most other compounds. Owing to the presence of the polar OH alcohols are more water-soluble than simple hydrocarbons. Methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water. Butanol, with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble.

Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols tend to have higher boiling points than comparable hydrocarbons and ethers. The boiling point of the alcohol ethanol is 78.29 °C, compared to 69 °C for the hydrocarbon hexane, and 34.6 °C for diethyl ether.

Simple alcohols are found widely in nature. Ethanol is the most prominent because it is the product of fermentation, a major energy-producing pathway. The other simple alcohols are formed in only trace amounts. More complex alcohols however are pervasive, as manifested in sugars, some amino acids, and fatty acids.

In the Ziegler process, linear alcohols are produced from ethylene and triethylaluminium followed by oxidation and hydrolysis. An idealized synthesis of 1-octanol is shown:

The process generates a range of alcohols that are separated by distillation.

Many higher alcohols are produced by hydroformylation of alkenes followed by hydrogenation. When applied to a terminal alkene, as is common, one typically obtains a linear alcohol:

Such processes give fatty alcohols, which are useful for detergents.

Some low molecular weight alcohols of industrial importance are produced by the addition of water to alkenes. Ethanol, isopropanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol are produced by this general method. Two implementations are employed, the direct and indirect methods. The direct method avoids the formation of stable intermediates, typically using acid catalysts. In the indirect method, the alkene is converted to the sulfate ester, which is subsequently hydrolyzed. The direct hydration using ethylene (ethylene hydration) or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled crude oil.

Hydration is also used industrially to produce the diol ethylene glycol from ethylene oxide.

Ethanol is obtained by fermentation using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast and temperature of less than 37 °C to produce ethanol. For instance, such a process might proceed by the conversion of sucrose by the enzyme invertase into glucose and fructose, then the conversion of glucose by the enzyme complex zymase into ethanol and carbon dioxide.

Several species of the benign bacteria in the intestine use fermentation as a form of anaerobic metabolism. This metabolic reaction produces ethanol as a waste product. Thus, human bodies contain some quantity of alcohol endogenously produced by these bacteria. In rare cases, this can be sufficient to cause "auto-brewery syndrome" in which intoxicating quantities of alcohol are produced.

Like ethanol, butanol can be produced by fermentation processes. Saccharomyces yeast are known to produce these higher alcohols at temperatures above 75 °F (24 °C). The bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum can feed on cellulose to produce butanol on an industrial scale.

Primary alkyl halides react with aqueous NaOH or KOH mainly to primary alcohols in nucleophilic aliphatic substitution. (Secondary and especially tertiary alkyl halides will give the elimination (alkene) product instead). Grignard reagents react with carbonyl groups to secondary and tertiary alcohols. Related reactions are the Barbier reaction and the Nozaki-Hiyama reaction.

Aldehydes or ketones are reduced with sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride (after an acidic workup). Another reduction by aluminiumisopropylates is the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction. Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation is the asymmetric reduction of β-keto-esters.

Alkenes engage in an acid catalysed hydration reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst that gives usually secondary or tertiary alcohols. The hydroboration-oxidation and oxymercuration-reduction of alkenes are more reliable in organic synthesis. Alkenes react with NBS and water in halohydrin formation reaction. Amines can be converted to diazonium salts, which are then hydrolyzed.

The formation of a secondary alcohol via reduction and hydration is shown:

With a pKa of around 16–19, they are, in general, slightly weaker acids than water. With strong bases such as sodium hydride or sodium they form salts called alkoxides, with the general formula RO M+.

The acidity of alcohols is strongly affected by solvation. In the gas phase, alcohols are more acidic than in water.

The OH group is not a good leaving group in nucleophilic substitution reactions, so neutral alcohols do not react in such reactions. However, if the oxygen is first protonated to give R−OH2+, the leaving group (water) is much more stable, and the nucleophilic substitution can take place. For instance, tertiary alcohols react with hydrochloric acid to produce tertiary alkyl halides, where the hydroxyl group is replaced by a chlorine atom by unimolecular nucleophilic substitution. If primary or secondary alcohols are to be reacted with hydrochloric acid, an activator such as zinc chloride is needed. In alternative fashion, the conversion may be performed directly using thionyl chloride.[1]

Some simple conversions of alcohols to alkyl chlorides

Alcohols may, likewise, be converted to alkyl bromides using hydrobromic acid or phosphorus tribromide, for example:

In the Barton-McCombie deoxygenation an alcohol is deoxygenated to an alkane with tributyltin hydride or a trimethylborane-water complex in a radical substitution reaction.

Meanwhile, the oxygen atom has lone pairs of nonbonded electrons that render it weakly basic in the presence of strong acids such as sulfuric acid. For example, with methanol:

Acidity & basicity of methanol

Upon treatment with strong acids, alcohols undergo the E1 elimination reaction to produce alkenes. The reaction, in general, obeys Zaitsev's Rule, which states that the most stable (usually the most substituted) alkene is formed. Tertiary alcohols eliminate easily at just above room temperature, but primary alcohols require a higher temperature.

This is a diagram of acid catalysed dehydration of ethanol to produce ethylene:

DehydrationOfAlcoholWithH-.png

A more controlled elimination reaction requires the formation of the xanthate ester.

Tertiary alcohols react with strong acids to generate carbocations. The reaction is related to their dehydration, e.g. isobutylene from tert-butyl alcohol. A special kind of dehydration reaction involves triphenylmethanol and especially its amine-substituted derivatives. When treated with acid, these alcohols lose water to give stable carbocations, which are commercial dyes.

Alcohol and carboxylic acids react in the so-called Fischer esterification. The reaction usually requires a catalyst, such as concentrated sulfuric acid:

Other types of ester are prepared in a similar manner – for example, tosyl (tosylate) esters are made by reaction of the alcohol with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in pyridine.

Primary alcohols (R-CH2OH) can be oxidized either to aldehydes (R-CHO) or to carboxylic acids (R-CO2H). The oxidation of secondary alcohols (R1R2CH-OH) normally terminates at the ketone (R1R2C=O) stage. Tertiary alcohols (R1R2R3C-OH) are resistant to oxidation.

The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids normally proceeds via the corresponding aldehyde, which is transformed via an aldehyde hydrate (R-CH(OH)2) by reaction with water before it can be further oxidized to the carboxylic acid.

Reagents useful for the transformation of primary alcohols to aldehydes are normally also suitable for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones. These include Collins reagent and Dess-Martin periodinane. The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids can be carried out using potassium permanganate or the Jones reagent.

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Mixing alcohol with diet soda instead of regular soda gets you drunk faster Without the sugar, alcohol is absorbed…
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The 'farmer' tells his friend that during the daytime, they are paid anything between Rs 2000 to Rs 3000 per day, a…
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Este finde fue 0 alcohol 😱😱. Q me está pasando jajaja
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RT @AgueroFacuariel: Qhdmil xq me gusta tsnto el alcohol
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@Andressparraa11 Yo no tomo alcohol nene
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RT @Mippcivzla: 🗣️¡𝐄𝐒 𝐂𝐎𝐍𝐓𝐈𝐆𝐎!✍️🇻🇪 Ten en cuenta la siguiente recomendación 😷 Usar mascarilla 🧤Usar Guantes 🧴Aplicar gel o solución con a…
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RT @elindepepy: 𝗧𝗘𝗡𝗗𝗘𝗡𝗖𝗜𝗔 🗣️ Momento en que un rayo impacta el tanque de alcohol de Petropar ⚡🔥🛢️
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Toda la semana sin tomar alcohol estoy ke me suicido
0
I just need some ✨alcohol & weed✨
0
i need you to also understand that we used to not be able to get wine at the grocery store and we also couldn't buy…
0
RT @valentinavoight: alcohol & me... a beautiful love story
3799
@soo_Legui Bendito alcohol malvado que invita a pecar jajajja
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RT @Telefuturo: “Hay escuelas que no tienen agua, tienen que tener presupuesto para un mantenimiento constante, para papel, para jabón, par…
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Lil alcohol poisoning
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RT @brucewayne5687: 5 months alcohol free! Can I get some love?
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RT @reagandwalker: I wish I had a hobby that didn’t involve food, alcohol, or Amazon.
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Perdón, pero angustia y alcohol en gel yo tuve siempre.
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RT @keeeeeaaaaa: This man saw gender based violence being perpetrated right in front of him and instead of blaming the man, he blamed alcoh…
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RT @mauuricastro: Nadie: Yo cuando tomo media gota de alcohol: dame un pucho
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🗣️¡𝐄𝐒 𝐂𝐎𝐍𝐓𝐈𝐆𝐎!✍️🇻🇪 Ten en cuenta la siguiente recomendación 😷Usar mascarilla 🧤Usar Guantes 🧴Aplicar gel o solució…
1970
50-49, Senate votes to advance budget resolution and kick off reconciliation process on a $1.9T coronavirus aid pac…
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Propaganda is endorsing Guthka under the garb of elaichi. The surrogate advertisements of Guthka & alcohol you beco…
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🗣️¡𝐄𝐒 𝐂𝐎𝐍𝐓𝐈𝐆𝐎!✍️🇻🇪 Ten en cuenta la siguiente recomendación 😷 Usar mascarilla 🧤Usar Guantes 🧴Aplicar gel o soluci…
963
RT @CerromeRussell: Wait.... E-40 wine is 18% alcohol?! You gon be talking exactly like him after a few glasses
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RT @Dark_Wizzy_: Age division at events is very iffy, not sure if its the answer But guardian attendance for kids at events? Thats comple…
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@KING5Seattle Well it would be more than about damn time. It's 2021, not 1950. Just get it done because it is lo…
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RT @CerromeRussell: Wait.... E-40 wine is 18% alcohol?! You gon be talking exactly like him after a few glasses
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RT @barroscristian_: El alcohol no pone violentos a los jóvenes, ver al Nacional de Giordano si.
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RT @CerromeRussell: Wait.... E-40 wine is 18% alcohol?! You gon be talking exactly like him after a few glasses
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@AnGGoodson @TheBabylonBee As you going to be held responsible for alcohol poisoning?
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RT @CerromeRussell: Wait.... E-40 wine is 18% alcohol?! You gon be talking exactly like him after a few glasses
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あのちゃんが言ってた「顔色悪いところが可愛い」っていうのは相当分かる
0
RT @etdiawtf: ใครอยากรู้ว่า DNA บริสุทธิ์สกัดออกมาสด ๆ หน้าตาเป็นยังไงมาดูนี่ อันนี้คือมันจับกันเป็นก้อนอยู่ เป็นวุ้นเพราะยังมี alcohol ที่…
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You cant be making this face drinking alcohol and then tell me its good 😒
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RT @CerromeRussell: Wait.... E-40 wine is 18% alcohol?! You gon be talking exactly like him after a few glasses
9253
RT @CerromeRussell: Wait.... E-40 wine is 18% alcohol?! You gon be talking exactly like him after a few glasses
9253
RT @28TBSLOUIS: it breaks my heart every time liam talks about drinking on lives because we all know he struggled with alcohol in the past…
2
RT @CerromeRussell: Wait.... E-40 wine is 18% alcohol?! You gon be talking exactly like him after a few glasses
9253
RT @LuluLust2: Drown myself in alcohol, that shit never helps at all I might say some stupid things tonight when you pick up this call I've…
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@yodelingfish i think i've lived in new england too long: at first i couldn't figure out how you didn't notice: the…
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Today is #WorldCancerDay Here are some ways to ↘️ your #cancer risk: 🚭 Don't use tobacco 🏊‍♂️ Exercise regularly…
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RT @miniminicuIt: reminding everyone that yoongi is able to drink whiskey with an alcohol percentage of 57.1% without even flinching.......…
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@CoorsLight @zaynmalik this is why your my fav zayn ily almost as much as i love free alcohol
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i dont drink any alcohol i cannot afford to deafen my senses in case they get me
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@AsSweetAsFucku Lmao, she gonna have to soak her head in alcohol 😭
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RT @LisaMelz: The confidence alcohol gives you is actually scary 😭
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RT @CoorsLight: Can’t wait for the stream to start? Hold yourself over with a 12-pack of Coors Seltzer on us.* Alcohol purch req’d. Offer…
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RT @CoorsLight: Can’t wait for the stream to start? Hold yourself over with a 12-pack of Coors Seltzer on us.* Alcohol purch req’d. Offer…
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RT @miniminicuIt: reminding everyone that yoongi is able to drink whiskey with an alcohol percentage of 57.1% without even flinching.......…
1300
RT @CoorsLight: Can’t wait for the stream to start? Hold yourself over with a 12-pack of Coors Seltzer on us.* Alcohol purch req’d. Offer…
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@CevoliTV Yea we trollin but u have a alcohol problem
0
@madeleinemua if you want to kill people with alcohol this is how to do it
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RT @Alhamdhulillaah: From among the portents of the Hour are: 1. Knowledge will be taken away (by the death of scholars). 2. Ignorance…
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RT @CoorsLight: Can’t wait for the stream to start? Hold yourself over with a 12-pack of Coors Seltzer on us.* Alcohol purch req’d. Offer…
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RT @satlok777: #नशाछोड़ो_भक्तिकरो Consumption of any types of drugs cause destruction in the path of devotion. Stop drinking alcohol and l…
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RT @CoorsLight: Can’t wait for the stream to start? Hold yourself over with a 12-pack of Coors Seltzer on us.* Alcohol purch req’d. Offer…
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RT @badrilalDangi13: #नशाछोड़ो_भक्तिकरो Consumption of any types of drugs cause destruction in the path of devotion. Stop drinking alcohol…
1
A Black Magic cocktail, black glittered Halloween or Galaxy cocktail made with black vodka, Wilton shimmer dust, orange juice, and cherry juice. With DIY for black vodka. // www.ElleTalk.com // Halloween cocktail, witch cocktail, galaxy cocktail, glitter
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Strawberry Rosé Slushies (Frosé) ~ If you love a great drink, this 2-ingredient slushy is for you... THE best way to BEAT THE HEAT!
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This non alcoholic punch is perfect for baby shower food, for birthday party drinks, or for a Christmas party! A sherbet based punch that's easy and delicious for a crowd!
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Baileys Frozen Mochaccino a delicious creamy frozen dessert you will ever taste. A must try. The perfect no-bake better than ice cream treat.
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Sex on the Beach cocktail, a tropical alcoholic drink traditionally made with vodka or rum, peach Schnapps, orange and cranberry juices served on the rocks in highball glasses.
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Pink lemonade jello shots using lemon peels! Fun alcoholic summer jello shots to make for a party. So cute and girly to make.
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The most refreshing Raspberry Lemonade Cocktail that is only 2 ingredients! So good! Can sub Light Simply Raspberry Lemonade. #drinks #cocktails #lemonade #raspberry
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This Jack Frost Winter Cocktail recipe is so festive, pretty, and delicious! It tastes like a piña colada, but Blue Curacao and sweet shredded coconut give it that fun wintery look. A perfect holiday drink that takes only minutes to whip up!
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Baileys Frozen Mochaccino a delicious creamy frozen dessert you will ever taste. A must try. The perfect no-bake better than ice cream treat.
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10 things you need to soak in alcohol ... that aren't gummy bears
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This is the Ultimate Guide for How To Make Jello Shots where I'll share tips, ideas, and some of my favorite recipes for your next party! #jelloshots #alcohol #vodka #rum #drinks
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Pink starburst jello shots recipe...fun summer jello shots recipe. Watermelon pucker, vodka, cool whip, etc. Fun pink candy taste! Perfect for bbq parties.
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Easy, fun party drink #Adultbeverages #HappyHour #Girlsnight
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alcohol Pinterest Ideas
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Feb 12, 2021 13:42
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Jun 21, 2020 14:16
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So @mugwenjuguna and I tried a few Cocktail recipes from the internet for father's day. Liquor from @sake_254 and juices from @gofrut_juice_ke (halla). Remember to drink responsibly, and alcohol in this video was consumed by adults 21+ #alcohol #drinks #bar #cocktails #fathersday #party #wine #vodka #liquor #bartender #cocktail #whiskey #love #whisky #drinking #gin #mixology #booze #friends #cheers #instagood #drunk #rum #fun #food #nightlife #drinkup #music #bhfyp #instabar
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Jun 21, 2020 14:15
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Proper hand hygiene and Alcohol based sanitizers can reduce 97% of the germs in your hands. . I chose @alharamainperfumes Perfumed sanitizer that is formulated with Alcohol , and fragrance ( isn’t it boring always to use the same Vitamin E & Aloe Vera gel ?????) . . Well they have an amazing range of sanitizers in 3 flavors : . 🎍OUDI 💐AMBER 🌹MUSK . AMBER is the blend of fresh citric and floral touch of rose combined with spice touch of woody and vibrant aromatic smell. . OUDI , the Oud and the amber being the base tone with the combo of sweet aroma of rose with a tad bit of smoked infusion. . MUSK refreshing yet sweet and warm tones of musk. . . The packaging looks bright and vibrant with OUDI packed in a brick brown glass bottle , the MUSK in a Royal blue and AMBER is a true purple bottle . . The bottle is quite big , containing 100 ml which is a good amount for the price you pay for . . I personally love to spray over my outfits too and have placed in the main table of my living area . The colors of the packaging simply puts a smile on my face and the fragrance in the sanitizer puts a reminder in our thoughts to use it frequently . . . I have used few of their perfumes , however this sanitizers are simply superb and it will be in my staple collection. . . You can find them at the stores as well as online , they do have a website (www.shop.alharamainperfumes.com) . . They do ship globally , and you can definitely shop at your convenience. . . . Do give @alharamainperfumes a follow and stay updated with their latest fragrance and perfumes releases. . . . . Stay safe & Much Love ❤️
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Jun 21, 2020 14:16
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Jun 21, 2020 14:17
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Me ne andrò su una barca de fiori Me ne andrò, però nun me lamento. (Mannarino)
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Jun 21, 2020 14:18
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#1일3깡 시험 끝났으니까 1일 5깡은 해줘야쥬? 감자깡, 양파깡, 고구마깡, 새우깡, 소주깡💦 ⠀ @co___nan 언니 인싸 소주따는법으로 1일3깡 따라잡기🌚... 인데 왜이렇게 막 손발이 꼬부라지곸ㅋㅋㅋㅋ 미치겐네.... 보는 내가 죽겐네^^ㅎ...여러분 눈 쏴리....ㅠ ⠀
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#1일3깡
Jun 21, 2020 14:17
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Jun 21, 2020 14:17
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HaPpY fAtHeRs DaY! 🍋💚🍋
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Jun 21, 2020 14:17
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NEW RELEASE: ARMED FORCES DAY VETERAN T-SHIRTS! Next Saturday marks Armed Forces Day 2020... Be sure to purchase your t-shirts at diamondapparel2020.wixsite.com/diamondapparel/shop and 20% of the proceeds from this range will go to supporting UK Veterans! Use code FLASHSALE10 for your 10% discount all weekend! 🎉 #army #armedforces #veteran #soldier #sapper #ubique #armedforcesday #armedforcesday2020 #britisharmy #military #alcohol #alcoholdisposalteam #bethebest #ukarmy #camo #camoflauge #newin #instorenow #sale #flashsale
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#bethebest #camoflauge #sale #armedforces #armedforcesday2020
Jun 21, 2020 14:18
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Swear this lockdowns turned me into an alcoholic 😂 #ginandlemonade #alcohol
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#alcohol #ginandlemonade