fish

This hashtag in English

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Fish are aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ray-finned fish, belonging to the class Actinopterygii, with over 95% belonging to the teleost subgrouping.

The earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms. Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many (such as sharks) became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods.

Most fish are ectothermic ("cold-blooded"), allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish can acoustically communicate with each other, most often in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship.

Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams (e.g., char and gudgeon) to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans (e.g., cusk-eels and snailfish), although no species has yet been documented in the deepest 25% of the ocean. With 34,300 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates.

Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean (in aquaculture). They are also caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, and exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, and as the subjects of art, books and movies.

Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces (also ichthyes) is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification.

The word for fish in English and the other Germanic languages (German fisch; Gothic fisks) is inherited from Proto-Germanic, and is related to the Latin piscis and Old Irish īasc, though the exact root is unknown; some authorities reconstruct an Proto-Indo-European root *peysk-, attested only in Italic, Celtic, and Germanic.

The English word once had a much broader usage than its current biological meaning. Names such as starfish, jellyfish, shellfish and cuttlefish attest to almost any fully aquatic animal (including whales) once being 'fish'. "Correcting" such names (e.g. to 'sea star') is an attempt to retroactively apply the current meaning of 'fish' to words that were coined when it had a different meaning.

Fish, as vertebrata, developed as sister of the tunicata. As the tetrapods emerged deep within the fishes group, as sister of the lungfish, characteristics of fish are typically shared by tetrapods, including having vertebrae and a cranium.

Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a group of small, jawless, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawless fish lineages are mostly extinct. An extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils. They lacked distinct teeth, having instead the oral surfaces of their jaw plates modified to serve the various purposes of teeth. The diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or a combination of factors.

Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways. The first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood (as some sea squirts do today), although perhaps the reverse is the case.

Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish also contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the class Pisces seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications.

Traditional classification divides fish into three extant classes, and with extinct forms sometimes classified within the tree, sometimes as their own classes:

The above scheme is the one most commonly encountered in non-specialist and general works. Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, in that they have given rise to successive groups: Agnathans are ancestral to Chondrichthyes, who again have given rise to Acanthodiians, the ancestors of Osteichthyes. With the arrival of phylogenetic nomenclature, the fishes has been split up into a more detailed scheme, with the following major groups:

† – indicates extinct taxon
Some palaeontologists contend that because Conodonta are chordates, they are primitive fish. For a fuller treatment of this taxonomy, see the vertebrate article.

The position of hagfish in the phylum Chordata is not settled. Phylogenetic research in 1998 and 1999 supported the idea that the hagfish and the lampreys form a natural group, the Cyclostomata, that is a sister group of the Gnathostomata.

The various fish groups account for more than half of vertebrate species. There are almost 28,000 known extant species, of which almost 27,000 are bony fish, with 970 sharks, rays, and chimeras and about 108 hagfish and lampreys. A third of these species fall within the nine largest families; from largest to smallest, these families are Cyprinidae, Gobiidae, Cichlidae, Characidae, Loricariidae, Balitoridae, Serranidae, Labridae, and Scorpaenidae. About 64 families are monotypic, containing only one species. The final total of extant species may grow to exceed 32,500.

Agnatha
(Pacific hagfish)

Chondrichthyes
(Horn shark)

Actinopterygii
(Brown trout)

Sarcopterygii
(Coelacanth)

The term "fish" most precisely describes any non-tetrapod craniate (i.e. an animal with a skull and in most cases a backbone) that has gills throughout life and whose limbs, if any, are in the shape of fins. Unlike groupings such as birds or mammals, fish are not a single clade but a paraphyletic collection of taxa, including hagfishes, lampreys, sharks and rays, ray-finned fish, coelacanths, and lungfish. Indeed, lungfish and coelacanths are closer relatives of tetrapods (such as mammals, birds, amphibians, etc.) than of other fish such as ray-finned fish or sharks, so the last common ancestor of all fish is also an ancestor to tetrapods. As paraphyletic groups are no longer recognised in modern systematic biology, the use of the term "fish" as a biological group must be avoided.

Many types of aquatic animals commonly referred to as "fish" are not fish in the sense given above; examples include shellfish, cuttlefish, starfish, crayfish and jellyfish. In earlier times, even biologists did not make a distinction – sixteenth century natural historians classified also seals, whales, amphibians, crocodiles, even hippopotamuses, as well as a host of aquatic invertebrates, as fish. However, according to the definition above, all mammals, including cetaceans like whales and dolphins, are not fish. In some contexts, especially in aquaculture, the true fish are referred to as finfish (or fin fish) to distinguish them from these other animals.

A typical fish is ectothermic, has a streamlined body for rapid swimming, extracts oxygen from water using gills or uses an accessory breathing organ to breathe atmospheric oxygen, has two sets of paired fins, usually one or two (rarely three) dorsal fins, an anal fin, and a tail fin, has jaws, has skin that is usually covered with scales, and lays eggs.

Each criterion has exceptions. Tuna, swordfish, and some species of sharks show some warm-blooded adaptations – they can heat their bodies significantly above ambient water temperature. Streamlining and swimming performance varies from fish such as tuna, salmon, and jacks that can cover 10–20 body-lengths per second to species such as eels and rays that swim no more than 0.5 body-lengths per second. Many groups of freshwater fish extract oxygen from the air as well as from the water using a variety of different structures. Lungfish have paired lungs similar to those of tetrapods, gouramis have a structure called the labyrinth organ that performs a similar function, while many catfish, such as Corydoras extract oxygen via the intestine or stomach. Body shape and the arrangement of the fins is highly variable, covering such seemingly un-fishlike forms as seahorses, pufferfish, anglerfish, and gulpers. Similarly, the surface of the skin may be naked (as in moray eels), or covered with scales of a variety of different types usually defined as placoid (typical of sharks and rays), cosmoid (fossil lungfish and coelacanths), ganoid (various fossil fish but also living gars and bichirs), cycloid, and ctenoid (these last two are found on most bony fish). There are even fish that live mostly on land or lay their eggs on land near water. Mudskippers feed and interact with one another on mudflats and go underwater to hide in their burrows. A single, undescribed species of Phreatobius, has been called a true "land fish" as this worm-like catfish strictly lives among waterlogged leaf litter. Many species live in underground lakes, underground rivers or aquifers and are popularly known as cavefish.

Fish range in size from the huge 16-metre (52 ft) whale shark to the tiny 8-millimetre (0.3 in) stout infantfish.

Fish species diversity is roughly divided equally between marine (oceanic) and freshwater ecosystems. Coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific constitute the center of diversity for marine fishes, whereas continental freshwater fishes are most diverse in large river basins of tropical rainforests, especially the Amazon, Congo, and Mekong basins. More than 5,600 fish species inhabit Neotropical freshwaters alone, such that Neotropical fishes represent about 10% of all vertebrate species on the Earth. Exceptionally rich sites in the Amazon basin, such as Cantão State Park, can contain more freshwater fish species than occur in all of Europe.

The deepest living fish in the ocean so far found is the Mariana snailfish (Pseudoliparis swirei) which lives at deeps of 8,000 meters (26,200 feet) along the Mariana Trench near Guam.

Most fish exchange gases using gills on either side of the pharynx. Gills consist of threadlike structures called filaments. Each filament contains a capillary network that provides a large surface area for exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. Fish exchange gases by pulling oxygen-rich water through their mouths and pumping it over their gills. In some fish, capillary blood flows in the opposite direction to the water, causing countercurrent exchange. The gills push the oxygen-poor water out through openings in the sides of the pharynx. Some fish, like sharks and lampreys, possess multiple gill openings. However, bony fish have a single gill opening on each side. This opening is hidden beneath a protective bony cover called an operculum.

Juvenile bichirs have external gills, a very primitive feature that they share with larval amphibians.

Fish from multiple groups can live out of the water for extended periods. Amphibious fish such as the mudskipper can live and move about on land for up to several days,[dubious ] or live in stagnant or otherwise oxygen depleted water. Many such fish can breathe air via a variety of mechanisms. The skin of anguillid eels may absorb oxygen directly. The buccal cavity of the electric eel may breathe air. Catfish of the families Loricariidae, Callichthyidae, and Scoloplacidae absorb air through their digestive tracts. Lungfish, with the exception of the Australian lungfish, and bichirs have paired lungs similar to those of tetrapods and must surface to gulp fresh air through the mouth and pass spent air out through the gills. Gar and bowfin have a vascularized swim bladder that functions in the same way. Loaches, trahiras, and many catfish breathe by passing air through the gut. Mudskippers breathe by absorbing oxygen across the skin (similar to frogs). A number of fish have evolved so-called accessory breathing organs that extract oxygen from the air. Labyrinth fish (such as gouramis and bettas) have a labyrinth organ above the gills that performs this function. A few other fish have structures resembling labyrinth organs in form and function, most notably snakeheads, pikeheads, and the Clariidae catfish family.

Breathing air is primarily of use to fish that inhabit shallow, seasonally variable waters where the water's oxygen concentration may seasonally decline. Fish dependent solely on dissolved oxygen, such as perch and cichlids, quickly suffocate, while air-breathers survive for much longer, in some cases in water that is little more than wet mud. At the most extreme, some air-breathing fish are able to survive in damp burrows for weeks without water, entering a state of aestivation (summertime hibernation) until water returns.

Air breathing fish can be divided into obligate air breathers and facultative air breathers. Obligate air breathers, such as the African lungfish, must breathe air periodically or they suffocate. Facultative air breathers, such as the catfish Hypostomus plecostomus, only breathe air if they need to and will otherwise rely on their gills for oxygen. Most air breathing fish are facultative air breathers that avoid the energetic cost of rising to the surface and the fitness cost of exposure to surface predators.

Fish have a closed-loop circulatory system. The heart pumps the blood in a single loop throughout the body. In most fish, the heart consists of four parts, including two chambers and an entrance and exit. The first part is the sinus venosus, a thin-walled sac that collects blood from the fish's veins before allowing it to flow to the second part, the atrium, which is a large muscular chamber. The atrium serves as a one-way antechamber, sends blood to the third part, ventricle. The ventricle is another thick-walled, muscular chamber and it pumps the blood, first to the fourth part, bulbus arteriosus, a large tube, and then out of the heart. The bulbus arteriosus connects to the aorta, through which blood flows to the gills for oxygenation.

Jaws allow fish to eat a wide variety of food, including plants and other organisms. Fish ingest food through the mouth and break it down in the esophagus. In the stomach, food is further digested and, in many fish, processed in finger-shaped pouches called pyloric caeca, which secrete digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients. Organs such as the liver and pancreas add enzymes and various chemicals as the food moves through the digestive tract. The intestine completes the process of digestion and nutrient absorption.

As with many aquatic animals, most fish release their nitrogenous wastes as ammonia. Some of the wastes diffuse through the gills. Blood wastes are filtered by the kidneys.

Saltwater fish tend to lose water because of osmosis. Their kidneys return water to the body. The reverse happens in freshwater fish: they tend to gain water osmotically. Their kidneys produce dilute urine for excretion. Some fish have specially adapted kidneys that vary in function, allowing them to move from freshwater to saltwater.

The scales of fish originate from the mesoderm (skin); they may be similar in structure to teeth.

Fish typically have quite small brains relative to body size compared with other vertebrates, typically one-fifteenth the brain mass of a similarly sized bird or mammal. However, some fish have relatively large brains, most notably mormyrids and sharks, which have brains about as massive relative to body weight as birds and marsupials.

Fish brains are divided into several regions. At the front are the olfactory lobes, a pair of structures that receive and process signals from the nostrils via the two olfactory nerves. The olfactory lobes are very large in fish that hunt primarily by smell, such as hagfish, sharks, and catfish. Behind the olfactory lobes is the two-lobed telencephalon, the structural equivalent to the cerebrum in higher vertebrates. In fish the telencephalon is concerned mostly with olfaction. Together these structures form the forebrain.

Connecting the forebrain to the midbrain is the diencephalon (in the diagram, this structure is below the optic lobes and consequently not visible). The diencephalon performs functions associated with hormones and homeostasis. The pineal body lies just above the diencephalon. This structure detects light, maintains circadian rhythms, and controls color changes.

The midbrain (or mesencephalon) contains the two optic lobes. These are very large in species that hunt by sight, such as rainbow trout and cichlids.

The hindbrain (or metencephalon) is particularly involved in swimming and balance. The cerebellum is a single-lobed structure that is typically the biggest part of the brain. Hagfish and lampreys have relatively small cerebellae, while the mormyrid cerebellum is massive and apparently involved in their electrical sense.

The brain stem (or myelencephalon) is the brain's posterior. As well as controlling some muscles and body organs, in bony fish at least, the brain stem governs respiration and osmoregulation.

Most fish possess highly developed sense organs. Nearly all daylight fish have color vision that is at least as good as a human's (see vision in fishes). Many fish also have chemoreceptors that are responsible for extraordinary senses of taste and smell. Although they have ears, many fish may not hear very well. Most fish have sensitive receptors that form the lateral line system, which detects gentle currents and vibrations, and senses the motion of nearby fish and prey. Some fish, such as catfish and sharks, have the ampullae of Lorenzini, electroreceptors that detect weak electric currents on the order of millivolt. Other fish, like the South American electric fishes Gymnotiformes, can produce weak electric currents, which they use in navigation and social communication.

Fish orient themselves using landmarks and may use mental maps based on multiple landmarks or symbols. Fish behavior in mazes reveals that they possess spatial memory and visual discrimination.

Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish eyes are similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens. Their retinas generally have both rods and cones (for scotopic and photopic vision), and most species have colour vision. Some fish can see ultraviolet and some can see polarized light. Amongst jawless fish, the lamprey has well-developed eyes, while the hagfish has only primitive eyespots. Fish vision shows adaptation to their visual environment, for example deep sea fishes have eyes suited to the dark environment.

Hearing is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish sense sound using their lateral lines and their ears.

New research has expanded preconceptions about the cognitive capacities of fish. For example, manta rays have exhibited behavior linked to self-awareness in mirror test cases. Placed in front of a mirror, individual rays engaged in contingency testing, that is, repetitive behavior aiming to check whether their reflection's behavior mimics their body movement.

Wrasses have also passed the mirror test in a 2018 scientific study.

Cases of tool use have also been noticed, notably in the Choerodon family, in archerfish and Atlantic cod.

Experiments done by William Tavolga provide evidence that fish have pain and fear responses. For instance, in Tavolga's experiments, toadfish grunted when electrically shocked and over time they came to grunt at the mere sight of an electrode.

In 2003, Scottish scientists at the University of Edinburgh and the Roslin Institute concluded that rainbow trout exhibit behaviors often associated with pain in other animals. Bee venom and acetic acid injected into the lips resulted in fish rocking their bodies and rubbing their lips along the sides and floors of their tanks, which the researchers concluded were attempts to relieve pain, similar to what mammals would do. Neurons fired in a pattern resembling human neuronal patterns.

Professor James D. Rose of the University of Wyoming claimed the study was flawed since it did not provide proof that fish possess "conscious awareness, particularly a kind of awareness that is meaningfully like ours". Rose argues that since fish brains are so different from human brains, fish are probably not conscious in the manner humans are, so that reactions similar to human reactions to pain instead have other causes. Rose had published a study a year earlier arguing that fish cannot feel pain because their brains lack a neocortex. However, animal behaviorist Temple Grandin argues that fish could still have consciousness without a neocortex because "different species can use different brain structures and systems to handle the same functions."

Animal welfare advocates raise concerns about the possible suffering of fish caused by angling. Some countries, such as Germany have banned specific types of fishing, and the British RSPCA now formally prosecutes individuals who are cruel to fish.

In 2019, scientists have shown that members of the monogamous species Amatitlania siquia exhibit pessimistic behavior when they are prevented from being with their partner.

Most fish move by alternately contracting paired sets of muscles on either side of the backbone. These contractions form S-shaped curves that move down the body. As each curve reaches the back fin, backward force is applied to the water, and in conjunction with the fins, moves the fish forward. The fish's fins function like an airplane's flaps. Fins also increase the tail's surface area, increasing speed. The streamlined body of the fish decreases the amount of friction from the water. Since body tissue is denser than water, fish must compensate for the difference or they will sink. Many bony fish have an internal organ called a swim bladder that adjusts their buoyancy through manipulation of gases.

Although most fish are exclusively ectothermic, there are exceptions. The only known bony fishes (infraclass Teleostei) that exhibit endothermy are in the suborder Scombroidei – which includes the billfishes, tunas, and the butterfly kingfish, a basal species of mackerel – and also the opah. The opah, a lampriform, was demonstrated in 2015 to utilize "whole-body endothermy", generating heat with its swimming muscles to warm its body while countercurrent exchange (as in respiration) minimizes heat loss. It is able to actively hunt prey such as squid and swim for long distances due to the ability to warm its entire body, including its heart, which is a trait typically found in only mammals and birds (in the form of homeothermy). In the cartilaginous fishes (class Chondrichthyes), sharks of the families Lamnidae (porbeagle, mackerel, salmon, and great white sharks) and Alopiidae (thresher sharks) exhibit endothermy. The degree of endothermy varies from the billfishes, which warm only their eyes and brain, to the bluefin tuna and the porbeagle shark, which maintain body temperatures in excess of 20 °C (68 °F) above ambient water temperatures.

Endothermy, though metabolically costly, is thought to provide advantages such as increased muscle strength, higher rates of central nervous system processing, and higher rates of digestion.

Fish reproductive organs include testicles and ovaries. In most species, gonads are paired organs of similar size, which can be partially or totally fused. There may also be a range of secondary organs that increase reproductive fitness.

In terms of spermatogonia distribution, the structure of teleosts testes has two types: in the most common, spermatogonia occur all along the seminiferous tubules, while in atherinomorph fish they are confined to the distal portion of these structures. Fish can present cystic or semi-cystic spermatogenesis in relation to the release phase of germ cells in cysts to the seminiferous tubules lumen.

Fish ovaries may be of three types: gymnovarian, secondary gymnovarian or cystovarian. In the first type, the oocytes are released directly into the coelomic cavity and then enter the ostium, then through the oviduct and are eliminated. Secondary gymnovarian ovaries shed ova into the coelom from which they go directly into the oviduct. In the third type, the oocytes are conveyed to the exterior through the oviduct. Gymnovaries are the primitive condition found in lungfish, sturgeon, and bowfin. Cystovaries characterize most teleosts, where the ovary lumen has continuity with the oviduct. Secondary gymnovaries are found in salmonids and a few other teleosts.

Oogonia development in teleosts fish varies according to the group, and the determination of oogenesis dynamics allows the understanding of maturation and fertilization processes. Changes in the nucleus, ooplasm, and the surrounding layers characterize the oocyte maturation process.

Postovulatory follicles are structures formed after oocyte release; they do not have endocrine function, present a wide irregular lumen, and are rapidly reabsorbed in a process involving the apoptosis of follicular cells. A degenerative process called follicular atresia reabsorbs vitellogenic oocytes not spawned. This process can also occur, but less frequently, in oocytes in other development stages.

Some fish, like the California sheephead, are hermaphrodites, having both testes and ovaries either at different phases in their life cycle or, as in hamlets, have them simultaneously.

Over 97% of all known fish are oviparous, that is, the eggs develop outside the mother's body. Examples of oviparous fish include salmon, goldfish, cichlids, tuna, and eels. In the majority of these species, fertilisation takes place outside the mother's body, with the male and female fish shedding their gametes into the surrounding water. However, a few oviparous fish practice internal fertilization, with the male using some sort of intromittent organ to deliver sperm into the genital opening of the female, most notably the oviparous sharks, such as the horn shark, and oviparous rays, such as skates. In these cases, the male is equipped with a pair of modified pelvic fins known as claspers.

Marine fish can produce high numbers of eggs which are often released into the open water column. The eggs have an average diameter of 1 millimetre (0.04 in).

Egg of lamprey

Egg of catshark (mermaids' purse)

Egg of bullhead shark

Egg of chimaera

The newly hatched young of oviparous fish are called larvae. They are usually poorly formed, carry a large yolk sac (for nourishment), and are very different in appearance from juvenile and adult specimens. The larval period in oviparous fish is relatively short (usually only several weeks), and larvae rapidly grow and change appearance and structure (a process termed metamorphosis) to become juveniles. During this transition larvae must switch from their yolk sac to feeding on zooplankton prey, a process which depends on typically inadequate zooplankton density, starving many larvae.

In ovoviviparous fish the eggs develop inside the mother's body after internal fertilization but receive little or no nourishment directly from the mother, depending instead on the yolk. Each embryo develops in its own egg. Familiar examples of ovoviviparous fish include guppies, angel sharks, and coelacanths.

Some species of fish are viviparous. In such species the mother retains the eggs and nourishes the embryos. Typically, viviparous fish have a structure analogous to the placenta seen in mammals connecting the mother's blood supply with that of the embryo. Examples of viviparous fish include the surf-perches, splitfins, and lemon shark. Some viviparous fish exhibit oophagy, in which the developing embryos eat other eggs produced by the mother. This has been observed primarily among sharks, such as the shortfin mako and porbeagle, but is known for a few bony fish as well, such as the halfbeak Nomorhamphus ebrardtii. Intrauterine cannibalism is an even more unusual mode of vivipary, in which the largest embryos eat weaker and smaller siblings. This behavior is also most commonly found among sharks, such as the grey nurse shark, but has also been reported for Nomorhamphus ebrardtii.

Aquarists commonly refer to ovoviviparous and viviparous fish as livebearers.

Acoustic communication in fish involves the transmission of acoustic signals from one individual of a species to another. The production of sounds as a means of communication among fish is most often used in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship behaviour. The sounds emitted can vary depending on the species and stimulus involved. Fish can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.

There are some species of fish that can produce sounds by rubbing or grinding their bones together. These noises produced by bone-on-bone interactions are known as 'stridulatory sounds'.

An example of this is seen in Haemulon flavolineatum, a species commonly referred to as the 'French grunt fish', as it produces a grunting noise by grinding its teeth together. This behaviour is most pronounced when the H. flavolineatum is in distress situations. The grunts produced by this species of fishes generate a frequency of approximately 700 Hz, and last approximately 47 milliseconds. The H. flavolineatum does not emit sounds with frequencies greater than 1000 Hz, and does not detect sounds that have frequencies greater than 1050 Hz.

In a study conducted by Oliveira et al. (2014), the longsnout seahorse, Hippocampus reidi, was recorded producing two different categories of sounds; ‘clicks’ and ‘growls’. The sounds emitted by the H. reidi are accomplished by rubbing their coronet bone across the grooved section of their neurocranium. ‘Clicking’ sounds were found to be primarily produced during courtship and feeding, and the frequencies of clicks were within the range of 50 Hz-800 Hz. The frequencies were noted to be on the higher end of the range during spawning periods, when the female and male fishes were less than fifteen centimeters apart. Growl sounds were produced when the H. reidi encountered stressful situations, such as handling by researchers. The 'growl' sounds consist of a series of sound pulses and are emitted simultaneously with body vibrations.

Some fish species create noise by engaging specialized muscles that contract and cause swimbladder vibrations.

Oyster toadfish produce loud grunting sounds by contracting muscles located along the sides of their swim bladder, known as sonic muscles Female and male toadfishes emit short-duration grunts, often as a fright response. In addition to short-duration grunts, male toadfishes produce “boat whistle calls”. These calls are longer in duration, lower in frequency, and are primarily used to attract mates. The sounds emitted by the O. tao have frequency range of 140 Hz to 260 Hz. The frequencies of the calls depend on the rate at which the sonic muscles contract.

The red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, produces drumming sounds by vibrating its swimbladder. Vibrations are caused by the rapid contraction of sonic muscles that surround the dorsal aspect of the swimbladder. These vibrations result in repeated sounds with frequencies that range from 100 to >200 Hz. The S. Ocellatus can produce different calls depending on the stimuli involved. The sounds created in courtship situations are different from those made during distressing events such as predatorial attacks. Unlike the males of the S. Ocellatus species, the females of this species don't produce sounds and lack sound-producing (sonic) muscles.

Like other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites. To prevent disease they have a variety of defenses. Non-specific defenses include the skin and scales, as well as the mucus layer secreted by the epidermis that traps and inhibits the growth of microorganisms. If pathogens breach these defenses, fish can develop an inflammatory response that increases blood flow to the infected region and delivers white blood cells that attempt to destroy pathogens. Specific defenses respond to particular pathogens recognised by the fish's body, i.e., an immune response. In recent years, vaccines have become widely used in aquaculture and also with ornamental fish, for example furunculosis vaccines in farmed salmon and koi herpes virus in koi.

Some species use cleaner fish to remove external parasites. The best known of these are the Bluestreak cleaner wrasses of the genus Labroides found on coral reefs in the Indian and Pacific oceans. These small fish maintain so-called "cleaning stations" where other fish congregate and perform specific movements to attract the attention of the cleaners. Cleaning behaviors have been observed in a number of fish groups, including an interesting case between two cichlids of the same genus, Etroplus maculatus, the cleaner, and the much larger Etroplus suratensis.

Immune organs vary by type of fish. In the jawless fish (lampreys and hagfish), true lymphoid organs are absent. These fish rely on regions of lymphoid tissue within other organs to produce immune cells. For example, erythrocytes, macrophages and plasma cells are produced in the anterior kidney (or pronephros) and some areas of the gut (where granulocytes mature.) They resemble primitive bone marrow in hagfish. Cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) have a more advanced immune system. They have three specialized organs that are unique to Chondrichthyes; the epigonal organs (lymphoid tissue similar to mammalian bone) that surround the gonads, the Leydig's organ within the walls of their esophagus, and a spiral valve in their intestine. These organs house typical immune cells (granulocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells). They also possess an identifiable thymus and a well-developed spleen (their most important immune organ) where various lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages develop and are stored. Chondrostean fish (sturgeons, paddlefish, and bichirs) possess a major site for the production of granulocytes within a mass that is associated with the meninges (membranes surrounding the central nervous system.) Their heart is frequently covered with tissue that contains lymphocytes, reticular cells and a small number of macrophages. The chondrostean kidney is an important hemopoietic organ; where erythrocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages develop.

Like chondrostean fish, the major immune tissues of bony fish (or teleostei) include the kidney (especially the anterior kidney), which houses many different immune cells. In addition, teleost fish possess a thymus, spleen and scattered immune areas within mucosal tissues (e.g. in the skin, gills, gut and gonads). Much like the mammalian immune system, teleost erythrocytes, neutrophils and granulocytes are believed to reside in the spleen whereas lymphocytes are the major cell type found in the thymus. In 2006, a lymphatic system similar to that in mammals was described in one species of teleost fish, the zebrafish. Although not confirmed as yet, this system presumably will be where naive (unstimulated) T cells accumulate while waiting to encounter an antigen.

B and T lymphocytes bearing immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, respectively, are found in all jawed fishes. Indeed, the adaptive immune system as a whole evolved in an ancestor of all jawed vertebrate.

The 2006 IUCN Red List names 1,173 fish species that are threatened with extinction. Included are species such as Atlantic cod, Devil's Hole pupfish, coelacanths, and great white sharks. Because fish live underwater they are more difficult to study than terrestrial animals and plants, and information about fish populations is often lacking. However, freshwater fish seem particularly threatened because they often live in relatively small water bodies. For example, the Devil's Hole pupfish occupies only a single 3 by 6 metres (10 by 20 ft) pool.

Overfishing is a major threat to edible fish such as cod and tuna. Overfishing eventually causes population (known as stock) collapse because the survivors cannot produce enough young to replace those removed. Such commercial extinction does not mean that the species is extinct, merely that it can no longer sustain a fishery.

One well-studied example of fishery collapse is the Pacific sardine Sadinops sagax caerulues fishery off the California coast. From a 1937 peak of 790,000 long tons (800,000 t) the catch steadily declined to only 24,000 long tons (24,000 t) in 1968, after which the fishery was no longer economically viable.

The main tension between fisheries science and the fishing industry is that the two groups have different views on the resiliency of fisheries to intensive fishing. In places such as Scotland, Newfoundland, and Alaska the fishing industry is a major employer, so governments are predisposed to support it. On the other hand, scientists and conservationists push for stringent protection, warning that many stocks could be wiped out within fifty years.

A key stress on both freshwater and marine ecosystems is habitat degradation including water pollution, the building of dams, removal of water for use by humans, and the introduction of exotic species. An example of a fish that has become endangered because of habitat change is the pallid sturgeon, a North American freshwater fish that lives in rivers damaged by human activity.

Introduction of non-native species has occurred in many habitats. One of the best studied examples is the introduction of Nile perch into Lake Victoria in the 1960s. Nile perch gradually exterminated the lake's 500 endemic cichlid species. Some of them survive now in captive breeding programmes, but others are probably extinct. Carp, snakeheads, tilapia, European perch, brown trout, rainbow trout, and sea lampreys are other examples of fish that have caused problems by being introduced into alien environments.

Throughout history, humans have utilized fish as a food source. Historically and today, most fish protein has come by means of catching wild fish. However, aquaculture, or fish farming, which has been practiced since about 3,500 BCE. in China, is becoming increasingly important in many nations. Overall, about one-sixth of the world's protein is estimated to be provided by fish. That proportion is considerably elevated in some developing nations and regions heavily dependent on the sea. In a similar manner, fish have been tied to trade.

Catching fish for the purpose of food or sport is known as fishing, while the organized effort by humans to catch fish is called a fishery. Fisheries are a huge global business and provide income for millions of people. The annual yield from all fisheries worldwide is about 154 million tons, with popular species including herring, cod, anchovy, tuna, flounder, and salmon. However, the term fishery is broadly applied, and includes more organisms than just fish, such as mollusks and crustaceans, which are often called "fish" when used as food.

Fish have been recognized as a source of beauty for almost as long as used for food, appearing in cave art, being raised as ornamental fish in ponds, and displayed in aquariums in homes, offices, or public settings.

Recreational fishing is fishing primarily for pleasure or competition; it can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is fishing for profit, or artisanal fishing, which is fishing primarily for food. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, reel, line, hooks, and any one of a wide range of baits. Recreational fishing is particularly popular in North America and Europe and state, provincial, and federal government agencies actively management target fish species. Angling is a method of fishing, specifically the practice of catching fish by means of an "angle" (hook). Anglers must select the right hook, cast accurately, and retrieve at the right speed while considering water and weather conditions, species, fish response, time of the day, and other factors.

Fish themes have symbolic significance in many religions. In ancient Mesopotamia, fish offerings were made to the gods from the very earliest times. Fish were also a major symbol of Enki, the god of water. Fish frequently appear as filling motifs in cylinder seals from the Old Babylonian (c. 1830 BC – c. 1531 BC) and Neo-Assyrian (911–609 BC) periods. Starting during the Kassite Period (c. 1600 BC – c. 1155 BC) and lasting until the early Persian Period (550–30 BC), healers and exorcists dressed in ritual garb resembling the bodies of fish. During the Seleucid Period (312–63 BC), the legendary Babylonian culture hero Oannes, described by Berossus, was said to have dressed in the skin of a fish. Fish were sacred to the Syrian goddess Atargatis and, during her festivals, only her priests were permitted to eat them.

In the Book of Jonah, a work of Jewish literature probably written in the fourth century BC, the central figure, a prophet named Jonah, is swallowed by a giant fish after being thrown overboard by the crew of the ship he is travelling on. The fish later vomits Jonah out on shore after three days. This book was later included as part of the Hebrew Bible, or Christian Old Testament, and a version of the story it contains is summarized in Surah 37:139-148 of the Quran. Early Christians used the ichthys, a symbol of a fish, to represent Jesus, because the Greek word for fish, ΙΧΘΥΣ Ichthys, could be used as an acronym for "Ίησοῦς Χριστός, Θεοῦ Υἱός, Σωτήρ" (Iesous Christos, Theou Huios, Soter), meaning "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour". The gospels also refer to "fishers of men" and feeding the multitude. In the dhamma of Buddhism, the fish symbolize happiness as they have complete freedom of movement in the water. Often drawn in the form of carp which are regarded in the Orient as sacred on account of their elegant beauty, size and life-span.

Among the deities said to take the form of a fish are Ika-Roa of the Polynesians, Dagon of various ancient Semitic peoples, the shark-gods of Hawaiʻi and Matsya of the Hindus. The astrological symbol Pisces is based on a constellation of the same name, but there is also a second fish constellation in the night sky, Piscis Austrinus.

Fish feature prominently in art and literature, in movies such as Finding Nemo and books such as The Old Man and the Sea. Large fish, particularly sharks, have frequently been the subject of horror movies and thrillers, most notably the novel Jaws, which spawned a series of films of the same name that in turn inspired similar films or parodies such as Shark Tale and Snakehead Terror. Piranhas are shown in a similar light to sharks in films such as Piranha; however, contrary to popular belief, the red-bellied piranha is actually a generally timid scavenger species that is unlikely to harm humans. Legends of half-human, half-fish mermaids have featured in folklore, including the stories of Hans Christian Andersen.

Though often used interchangeably, in biology these words have different meanings. Fish is used as a singular noun, or as a plural to describe multiple individuals from a single species. Fishes is used to describe different species or species groups. Thus a pond would be said to contain 120 fish if all were from a single species or 120 fishes if these included a mix of several species. The distinction is similar to that between people and peoples.

A random assemblage of fish merely using some localised resource such as food or nesting sites is known simply as an aggregation. When fish come together in an interactive, social grouping, then they may be forming either a shoal or a school depending on the degree of organisation. A shoal is a loosely organised group where each fish swims and forages independently but is attracted to other members of the group and adjusts its behaviour, such as swimming speed, so that it remains close to the other members of the group. Schools of fish are much more tightly organised, synchronising their swimming so that all fish move at the same speed and in the same direction. Shoaling and schooling behaviour is believed to provide a variety of advantages.

Examples:

While the words "school" and "shoal" have different meanings within biology, the distinctions are often ignored by non-specialists who treat the words as synonyms. Thus speakers of British English commonly use "shoal" to describe any grouping of fish, and speakers of American English commonly use "school" just as loosely.


Can we agree that if you live w/another human being there are three dishes that should never be left in the sink fo…
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Kerala: PM Modi acknowledges NS Rajappan, a differently-abled man based in Kochi, for his effort to fish out plasti…
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Now fish are testing positive for COVID.
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During the Middle Ages, being "lovesick" was considered a real illness Treatment included exposure to light, rest,…
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Chicken fish rice & vegetables >>> with fried Oreos & a blunt >>> & my bed & me being pretty >>>
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so long and thanks for all the fish
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RT @tol4n2k: dead fish? alguém?
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@fish_lasagna looks pretty easy
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@EmmaKennedy @gavin_steven I can't even say 'but....fish' anymore I got nothing.
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RT @MrOdanz: In the name of embracing my labels, I have added the name "Odense" to my Twitter name. It will now join such honoured labels l…
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@ayaya_identity え?技師持ってないの?
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Obviously, it’s the tall fish, becoming a blushing and moaning mess.
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RT @SammyStela: ❤️dear kitty 😊 that fish is our friend too ❤️
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RT @MaziIbe_: Jesus: I fed 5000 people with five loaves of bread and two fish. Aproko Doctor: 4999 boss. I didn’t eat because it was alrea…
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@rivacaterpillar that guy who was a meme for only eat fish and rice cakes was on first dates, talked about how his…
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RT @UberFacts: During the Middle Ages, being "lovesick" was considered a real illness Treatment included exposure to light, rest, warm bat…
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Swimmer of the Month is back!!!! Jan 2021 Swimmer of the Month for our Orange Team is Connor Gash! He gives 100% ev…
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@G2esports 🐟SPAM🐟THIS🐟FISH🐟TO🐟CANCEL🐟YOUR🐟WISH🐟
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RT @BrexitHome: Britain faces post-Brexit prawn crisis due to large UK tariffs on fish caught around Greenland
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RT @UberFacts: During the Middle Ages, being "lovesick" was considered a real illness Treatment included exposure to light, rest, warm bat…
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@JSS98Rock I 100% go through all-or-nothing stages with foods. I spent legit an entire year eating tuna fish sandwi…
0
RT @lanitas_kitchen: We have firewood jollof and cow meat this morning in the kitchen. A bowl is 7500 We also have olori Ofada with Turkey…
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RT @pe_nekoR: ファイアーエムブレム ヒーローズ4ッ周年ッッおめでとぅございま!!!す!!!!!!!!!!!🌹🌹 ヒーローズ公式サイト #FEヒーローズ #FEHeroes
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RT @MegamindMemes: the original
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@smile_again_a らいらいって呼びます🙋🏻‍♀️ きゅうりとかなんでも呼んでください!
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RT @SAIK1LUV: ㅤㅤㅤ★ :📀 __ %𝗕𝗨𝗦𝗖𝗢 𝗠𝗨𝗧𝗨𝗔𝗟𝗦 ، 🩹. ʾʾ h𖦹laa, no soy nueva en #Anitwt #animetwt pero busco moots para interactuar, estos son mis…
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@jisukjin_O_U_T 반택쓸ㅋ거야
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#FREDERICK SB US-15 near Fish Hatchery Rd, CRASH confined to RIGHT SHOULDER, All lanes REOPENED #mdtraffic…
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RT @ice_alu_sion: 난... 아직도 천악 움짤 중에서 이걸 뛰어넘는 건 못봄
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RT @faisalislam: So fish is an extreme of example of issues here - as highly perishable, & highly profitable demand in the EU for UK fish n…
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RT @GOGYSIMP: dteam angst? mf theyre gonna visit dream and all we're gonna get is sapnap: you betrayed us, how could you do that dream yo…
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RT @Zam9Kingdom: 이 움짤도 개발림,, 출근할 때 악마는 지하로 내려가고, 천사는 지상으로 올라간다는 설정임ㅋㅋ
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The Prettiest Star by David Bowie on Pickled fish
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lately everything has just tasted magnificent i also feel so happy rn i took a nap at 6 woke up at 8 finished my hw…
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@heyjimmy299 @Qldaah Lobster’s still around $89 / kilo in Melbourne. Big margins for fish mongers if they are buying them cheap.
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RT @elytraheart: guys i think dream is in my fish tank ?? the guy at the pet shop said he was called clay and he was an exotic species from…
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опять какое-нибудь списанное говно заставят купить за бешеные деньги.))
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RT @peachnserenity: “If gods can bleed, gods can die.” is such a powerful sentence and seems mysterious as hell but in reality it’s from a…
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Pres. Biden’s war on oil & gas is immeasurably foolish. It’ll gut Louisiana & other states like a fish. Here’s Pr…
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This leaves farmers open to being taken advantage of by big corporations - in turn causing pay rates to drop. “Jus…
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RT @YouJustInTimee: Waddup Twitter? I’m a chef based in ATL ,I make wings , burgers & fish etc all plates $10-$20. I’m in need of ATL futur…
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RT @rob_carlson: Anyone out there thinking about what covering reservoirs (or rivers above dams) with floating solar would do to water temp…
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Cute Fish Bone Printed Hoodies for Small Dogs #love #nature
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@CecilyHarrison @chrissyteigen Same, fish eggs are fish eggs
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@adamclarkitv I bet that made a few fish shit themselves.
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@V1BEZASH aonde eu posso assistir banana fish? given acho que tá na lista
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RT @bmay: There’s something utterly peculiar about a society that sits on its isolated island, fish rotting, exports demolished, amidst a s…
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RT @YouJustInTimee: Waddup Twitter? I’m a chef based in ATL ,I make wings , burgers & fish etc all plates $10-$20. I’m in need of ATL futur…
9381
@annadif_m Ça veut dire entrepreneur
0
What if I go back to the banana fish sad quotes
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RT @YouJustInTimee: Waddup Twitter? I’m a chef based in ATL ,I make wings , burgers & fish etc all plates $10-$20. I’m in need of ATL futur…
9381
RT @NintendoFanGirl: Everyone loves tall vampire lady but I’m still stuck on tall fish man
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RT @BotSheriff: ⠀ ⠀ ⠀ 🤠   🐠🐠🐠 🐠 🐠 🐠 👇 🍆 👇   🐠 🐠   🐠  🐠   👢 👢 howdy. i'm the penis sheriff of tropical fish
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My boyfriend tried to murder me on multiple occasions and even that is better than Burt saying ''Lol fish'' over and over again.
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RT @FerretScot: A £5,000 reward has been offered by an animal welfare charity concerned fish farms may continue to shoot seals despite a ba…
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RT @YouJustInTimee: Waddup Twitter? I’m a chef based in ATL ,I make wings , burgers & fish etc all plates $10-$20. I’m in need of ATL futur…
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@pauli_mma @HunterAHomistek Yeah but Conor is smarter than the fish he caught.
0
RT @NintendoFanGirl: Everyone loves tall vampire lady but I’m still stuck on tall fish man
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Vertebrates - Fish, Reptiles, Birds Invertebrates - Akshay Kumar, Saina Nehwal.... #SpinelessCelebs
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Things are building. Does the #SeditionCaucus understand they are very likely like fish swimming in a rapidly closi…
2021
RT @ARM1NCRY: ☆★ BUSCO MOOTS ★☆ HOLA !!! no soy nueva en #Anitwt pero me cambie de cuenta así que me encantaría tener nuevos mutis <3 —…
7
Banana fish¿?
0
RT @VVission123: fish have already been arrested while the small fry's were allowed to continue living their day to day lives. Those small…
12
RT @bmay: There’s something utterly peculiar about a society that sits on its isolated island, fish rotting, exports demolished, amidst a s…
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@jessieopie @WisMed Oops.
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RT @gyrhoes: fish fish fish fish fish
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RT @Thecrispycod: 🦞🦞🦀🦀We are so excited to bring you our Fresh Fish Market featuring some of Wales' finest produce. To celebrate we are off…
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RT @Quicktake: 🇬🇧🐟The Brexit deal may mean less British cod for fish & chips. @Edspencive takes a bite at the backstory
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RT @sprxnks: tommy and fran wanted to fish together :D wanted to make myself a wallpaper, might as well post it :] #tommyinnitfanart #tom…
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RT @itschelsee: everyday y’all come on here to talk abt gey muzzies & i just wonder if your piss is 40 days clean, if you’ve done your 5 pr…
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RT @ChinaDaily: Thousands of dead fish were seen on the shore of Horcones, Chile.
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@MelonWasTakenUp @DevlinUrsu @FideoKojimbo @NeonNerd1024 @cruiser_madd @Mustard_Mustach @dallimino @ItsYaBoiSoVa…
0
@tremontwater Fish gusher is just a fish oil pill tbh
0
DID YOU KNOW: some fish are cheating on their wives
0
Ay banana fish
0
@TamiFelice I can fed ex you some raw fish that will go over well 🤦🏻‍♂️😂
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@MrandMrs_Exotic The most exciting thing I do is post a video of fish in the sea with “Under the Sea” background music 😂😂
0
Keep chasing the newest shiny object while your culture rots out beneath you and treats you like the enemy within.…
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VINYL OF THE DAY: Ray Brown with the All-Star Big Band & Guest Soloist: Cannonball Adderley—Verve—1962. One of th…
0
RT @premnsikka: Brexit, the nightmare from Downing Street: 71 pages of paperwork for 1 lorry of fish. Rising costs and border delays will…
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RT @r6SaV0R: @EmmaTheresaJ @FrankieMooon The fish after you said ugly
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RT @zZzIanga: 𝗕𝗨𝗦𝗖𝗢 𝗠𝗢𝗢𝗧𝗦 !!! soy nueva en #anitwt #animetwt y busco mutuals que les guste: - sk8 the infinity, haikyuu, saiki k, banan…
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Meu top 5 (atualmente) 1- Aot 2- banana fish 3- erased 4- haikyuu 5- full metal brotherwood
0
RT @BazzaCC: Someone threw a bottle of Omega 3 at me. I only have super fish oil injuries but lucky I wasn't krilled.
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RT @colonelBOB2020: #fridayfunny Time to workout. Later peeps... Got to keep up to this fish 🤣🤣
1
Podcasts: BlueNalu CEO on Building a Cell-Based Fish Tech Company
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@codywanner The perfect time to remind everyone to not drink water after eating fish because the fish will come ali…
0
Ok creo q voy a ver banana fish
0
Fishy - darexart That eye socket gives me some anxiety. #deviantartists #Fishyhorror #podcast #Deviantart #movies…
0
@BryanBroaddus BB challenges Fish on some things in the end we win as listeners I’m all for it
0
Hi!!!!!! My name is henna and I love pumpkins like ash form banana fish did too!!!!!!!!! We stan no cap
0
EU’s ‘mad bureaucracy’ blamed for UK fish chaos – ‘Why Brussels economy is dying!’
0
RT @Lupita_Nyongo: Do not sleep on the movie, #FilmBetterDays from Hong Kong. The most haunting and devastatingly beautiful love story I ha…
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RT @proscot4indy: @DippyAnd @janicecelticsmp Yes, we need to be pragmatic, the strongest message we can send is a massive vote for the SNP…
3
RT @TimSuttonC: @Nigel_Farage Did they bring any fish with them Nige Because you said it would be easy to get rid of the fish, Nige
1
My bit on the fishermen, and Brexit’s denial stage
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This is a powerful article. I have always seen Brexit as a transfer of rights from the individual to government. We…
3130
For those who can't read it — Woman: "May you have abundance each year." Cat: "May you have fish each year." The…
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A brutal assessment of the SNP from @holyroodmandy: "They say that a fish rots from the head down. And something is…
164
RT @seokjinmylabsss: @bts_bighit suga room - the army picture with them and the bear joonie - moon jar and plants jungkook - the speakers ,…
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RT @seokjinmylabsss: @bts_bighit suga room - the army picture with them and the bear joonie - moon jar and plants jungkook - the speakers ,…
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RT @water_fish_jp: 急遽描いたバレンタインイラスト ぶっかけHeartくん♡
6
What a cool outing yesterday. Highly recommend the @CapeTownRedBus Wine Route option through Constantia. ✨ 🚌 Open…
0
@FoxNewsSunday @LindseyGrahamSC @LindseyGrahamSC is himself a disgrace every single day. He cannot help himself.…
0
RT @meghara: For those who can't read it — Woman: "May you have abundance each year." Cat: "May you have fish each year." The Chinese ch…
1624
on this valentine’s day, let us remember the year that my mom got my older brother a pet fish with a tank and all t…
0
Fish tofu is SO GOOD😭💖
0
RT @GirlWithLuv24: Curated For ARMY: Suga: Walnut Frame & Polaroids RM: Four-Way Case & Moon Jar JK: Fish Bowl & Speakers Jimin: Table & C…
52
RT @psnghoonie: HEE finally found the fish underwater 🐠
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@DavidFrost95 @Leethal_Fish @IGN Which coworker did the same thing? honest question.
0
RT @GOTYJ_Ars_Vita: 두두두두두둥등장
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RT @Shooting_6STAR: 영어해시위주로달려봅시다 #HAPPYRAVIDAY 이미실트에올랐다는이야기도 #RAVIISGRAVITY 들리고있으니힘내봐요빠샤
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@whowillseemea Hello 🌸! My name is Krisha! I'm an empathetic listener fish, 👋☺️! Are you alright, dear? Actually, t…
0
RT @eilidhfaye: “Plenty more fish in the sea” yeah well at this point I’d prefer a battered haddock than these men 🙃
1
RT @seokjinmylabsss: @bts_bighit suga room - the army picture with them and the bear joonie - moon jar and plants jungkook - the speakers ,…
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@RMH40 Fish 'Butchery' FFS.
0
RT @nelsonn_x33: she posted a mirror selfie in a hotel... i'm sick 😭😭
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“The communists for years have looked hopefully toward the negro residents of the United States as an element where…
0
今日の夜ご飯はトンカツ🤤 味噌カツにして作ってみた!!!
0
まだ描きかけのマンガもあるのですが、思うように描けずに苦行になってきたのでしばらくイラスト描いていこうかな、と。 昨年、中村佑介先生の展示会に行ってから、アナログでちまちま線引きしたかったので描いてみました。 アナログ・アナログス…
0
@jish_fish @mikepompeo Stfu
0
what u prefer go to a expomanga with ur dad or eat raw fish
0
늦었지만...
0
RT @wired_jp: カンボジアには、貧血を治してくれる魔法の魚がいる。と言ってもそれは生きた魚ではなく、鉄の塊だ(アーカイヴ記事)
8
I dunno where tf I'm gonna put it but I want to have a fish tank again.
0
@Tankgorl Y e s
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@rawrrlolll OMG DID U FINISH BANANA FISH
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Still no power at the crib. Come on, it can’t be like this all night. My fish tank temperature might get too low 🙃
0
@Legalparrot71 hence you know all this, fish out the bad eggs
0
RT @Cheuka_Ryo: 최근에 본 파판짤 중에 제일 웃김 ㅆ시발
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RT @WhaleSharkRocky: Will YOU be MY Valentine? 🥰🐋🦈 #valentinesday2021 BIGGEST fish in the sea, slow and leisurely swimmers, gentle, giant…
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@fish_404876 哥哥等等...這照片不優...我.....無照駕駛被拍到啦..............
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@pao_fish OH OKAY i choose the ✨latter✨ SJDJSJDJDJ
0
This Tilapia in Roasted Pepper Sauce is absolutely scrumptious, elegant and worthy of a special occasion. You won’t believe how easy it is to make it! #cooktoria #tilapia #seafood #fish #dinner #recipeoftheday #tastyrecipe #easyrecipe
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Tropical Fish: The Thorn-Tailed Fish (Acanthuridae) is a family of forked-tailed fish, (aka: tang, surgeonfish, unicornfish & more). There are over 80 species in this family, all who have very sharp & dangerous spines on their tail, which fork out at their rear. Usually the spines lie flat against the sides of the fish but if they are angry or scared the spines stick out & can be used to lash out at any perceived threat as the fish thrashes its tail about.
5
Pan-Seared Cod in White Wine Tomato Basil Sauce - Baker by Nature
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Cute fish !!!
10
Asian Salmon and Noodles is an excellent weeknight dinner choice. Honey-soy salmon broiled to perfection and then tossed with flavorful Asian noodles with mushrooms and snow peas. Both salmon and noodles are smothered in Sriracha flavored, honey-sesame sauce. #Asian #salmon #noodles #Asiansalmon #Asiannoodles #seafood #fish #mushrooms #snowpeas #honey #Asiansauce #Asianrecipe
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Parmesan Crusted Tilapia is tender, flaky and delicious! This fish is coated with a parmesan cornflake crust and pan fried until golden brown. #spendwithpennies #tilapia #fish #seafood #fishrecipe #tilapiarecipe #20minutemeal
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Crispy pan-fried fish fillet in a savory ginger-soy sauce. This fish recipe is so delicious you'll want it every day | rasamalaysia.com #fish #chinesenewyear
1
H E R M O S O !!!!!
3
When you're craving fish with a kick, make this spicy baked salmon with a honey and soy sauce glaze, topped with sesame seeds.
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Blackened Tilapia is a delicious blackened fish recipe that is on the table in under 10 minutes!  Perfect for a quick weeknight meal and so easy to make! #spendwithpennies #blackenedfish #blackenedseasoning #fishrecipe #blackenedtilapia #tilapiareicpe #easyrecipe #quickrecipe #cajunrecipe #cajunseasoning
48
Greek-Style Baked Cod Recipe with Lemon and Garlic! There is a reason thousands of people are raving about this recipe! So much flavor, and a great weeknight dinner! Baked cod, spiced Greek-style and baked with fresh lemon juice, olive oil and garlic. Takes 15 minutes or less in your oven! #greekfood #codrecipe #mediterraneanrecipe #bakedcod #bakedfish #onepandinner #fishdinner #fish #seafood #mediterraneandiet
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This blackened fish burger + sriracha mayo is a quick and easy weeknight meal that is healthy and bursting with flavor! Ready and on your table in 30 minutes!
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This low-carb blackened tilapia recipe comes together in only 10 MINUTES TOTAL!!! Topped with the most refreshing avocado cucumber salsa, you've got to add this to your quick and easy healthy fish recipes list.
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Oranda goldfish, I think?
77
Mahi Mahi in Lemon Garlic Cream Sauce is restaurant delicious but astonishingly easy – on your table in 30 minutes! #recipes #mahimahirecipes #fishrecipes #mahimahi #fish #easyrecipe #recipeoftheday #recipeideas #recipeseasy #dinner #dinnerrecipes #dinnerideas #dinnerideas #lemon #garlic #onepotwonder #30minutemeals via @carlsbadcraving
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Tropical Fish: The Thorn-Tailed Fish (Acanthuridae) is a family of forked-tailed fish, (aka: tang, surgeonfish, unicornfish & more). There are over 80 species in this family, all who have very sharp & dangerous spines on their tail, which fork out at their rear. Usually the spines lie flat against the sides of the fish but if they are angry or scared the spines stick out & can be used to lash out at any perceived threat as the fish thrashes its tail about.
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fish Pinterest Ideas
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Jul 4, 2020 05:41
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. 梳打仔一朝早就自己係度撚魚😂 . Soda is playing toyfish himself this morning 😂 . #梳打 #soda #茶茶梳打 #chachaandsoda #貓 #貓貓 #貓星人 #貓咪日常 #貓奴日記 #喵 #喵星人 #喵星人的日常 #cat #cats #catscatscats #catlovers #catstagram #catsofinstagram #catlife #hkcats #hkcatstagram #曼基 #munchkincat #猫 #猫咪 #猫のいる生活 #魚魚 #玩具魚 #fish #toyfish
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#chachaandsoda #cat #hkcats #fish #soda
Jul 4, 2020 05:40
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I got it done when all else failed with the TRD Ned rig by @zmanfishingproducts 💯 of course! Do you see how rocky it is where I was fishing! Those rocks symbolize how hard/tough my day of fishing transpired.
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Jul 4, 2020 05:40
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🔊FLASH DEAL 🕪 INSYA ALLAH AMANAH ( NO TIPU TIPU ) MOHON DI BACA BAIK BAIK Form and colour nilai sendiri ☉ KETIK DEAL ♀ MALE 🐠 SIZE M- DEAL : 50K ( FREE PACKING ) BUY NOW VIA DM/WA 📦 ONGKIR DI TANGGUNG PEMENANG ☉ CARA MUDAH ☉ FOLLOW IG @bumialit.cupang ☉ KOMENTAR PERTAMA DI ANGGAP SAH DAN MEMENUHI SYARAT . TRANSFER 1×24 JAM SETELAH MENANG FLASHDEAL 🚫 PHP AUTO VIRAL ✌✌ 📦 JASPER : TIKI. JNE. JNT ✔ GARANSI MEMAKAI EXPRESS ( FULL UNBOXING VIDEO ) ATO GANTI HARGA IKAN SAJA. 💳 TRANSFER : BCA 📌 SELLER : CIBEUREUM, BANDUNG JAWA BARAT 📳 WA : 081224931722 . . . #flashdeal #ikancupang #fish #bettafishindonesia #ikancupanghias #cupangkoimurah #cupangkoiindonesia #cupangkoigalaxy #cupangkoimulticollor #cupanggalaxy #cupangbandung #cupangnemoemerald #cupangnemocandy #cupangnemogalaxy #cupanghalfmoon #cupangfancy #cupangpartaian #cupangmurah #cupanghias #bettajakarta #cupangbogor #cupangdepok #cupangtangerang #cupangbekasi
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#ikancupang #bettafishindonesia #cupangbekasi #flashdeal #cupangnemocandy
Jul 4, 2020 05:40
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Have you ever tasted Colombian fast food? #yummy #seafood #fish #shrimps #aquascaping #foodie #dinner #foodlover #instafood #foodporn #Colombia #foodphotography #lunch #yum #foodstagram #delicious #food #shrimp #colombianfood #cali #losverdes
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#shrimps #yummy #yum #seafood #food
Jul 4, 2020 05:40
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@roz.team.fishing claiming his stake out near San Clemente Island last weekend with @fishvillagram and the Mad Anglers. Check out his YouTube! Link in bio. • • • • @fishvillagram @roz.team.fishing @pure_watersports1 @hobiefishing @hobiecatcompany #hobiefishing #hobiekayaks #hobie #myhobie #hobieoutback #kayakfishing #kayak #yakfishing #fishing #pedalkayaks #fishing #veteran #activeduty #military #fish #fishinglife #bass #bassfishing #pacificocean #sandiego #outdoors #ocean #inshorefishing #dropshot #fishvillage #fishingtrips #bucketlisttrip #fishingtravelagency #madanglers
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#outdoors #madanglers #pedalkayaks #military #hobieoutback
Jul 4, 2020 05:40
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SWEET CHILI SALMON ....😋 𝐦𝐚𝐝𝐞 𝐛𝐲 𝐨𝐫𝐝𝐞𝐫. Base in Charlotte, North Carolina #McWizkitchen #mcwiz #mcwizcaribbeankitchen #foodtrucks #Food #clt #fish #chicken #pasta #naturaljuice #jamaicanfood #jamaicantaste #lobster #crablegs #shrimp #northcharlotte #charlottenc #naturaljuice #juice #blm
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#fish #crablegs #foodtrucks #northcharlotte #clt
Jul 4, 2020 05:40
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#flowerhorn #flowerhornfish #flowerhorncichlid #flowerhornsofinstagram #flowerhorns #flowerhornlover #fish #fishinglife #fishaquarium #aquarium #pet #pets #animal #animals #instagram #google #petsofinstagram @petanimalsofficial
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#animal #fishinglife #google #pet #flowerhornsofinstagram
Jul 4, 2020 05:40
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Comfort food at it’s best. 12hr Slow cooked pulled pork 😍 . . . . #porktaco #tacos #🌮 #fishbar #fishandchips #foodphotography #foodie #melbourne #melbournefood #foodvlog #instafood #supportlocal #berwick #berwickhighstreet #hungry #prawns #dessert #burger #calamari #oysters #salads #rybfishbar#rowyourboat #fish #bestfish #bestchips
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#rowyourboat #supportlocal #dessert #foodie #hungry
Jul 4, 2020 05:41
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Voorgerecht zalmtartare advocade dille mayonaise en bieten mayonaise #chefslife #chefsofinstagram #fish #culinary #foodporn #chefstalk
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#chefsofinstagram #foodporn #culinary #chefstalk #chefslife
Jul 4, 2020 05:41
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Grilled whole tilapia and Greek-ish salad. #cookingwithsonya #cooking #cws #homemade #homecooked #cook #chef #homechef #kitchen #quarantinecooking #quarantinelife #delicious #yummy #food #bbq #grilled #fish #tilapia #greeksalad #salad #summer #dinner #tasty #bbqing #tasty #cookingathome #cooking #fresh #cucumber #tomatoes #peppers #onion
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#bbq #bbqing #cookingathome #homechef #food