purple

This hashtag in English

Last updated 17w.

Purple refers to any of a variety of colors with hue between red and blue.

Purple is closely associated with violet. In optics, purple and violet refer to colors that look similar, but purples are mixtures of red light and blue or violet light, whereas violets are spectral colors (of single wavelengths of light). In common usage, both refer to colors that are between red and blue in hue, with purples closer to red and violets closer to blue. Similarly, in the traditional painters' color wheel, purple and violet are both placed between red and blue, with purple closer to red.

Purple has long been associated with royalty, originally because Phoenician purple dye was extremely expensive in antiquity. Purple was the color worn by Roman magistrates; it became the imperial color worn by the rulers of the Byzantine Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, and later by Roman Catholic bishops. Similarly in Japan, the color is traditionally associated with the emperor and aristocracy.

According to contemporary surveys in Europe and the United States, purple is the color most often associated with rarity, royalty, magic, mystery and piety. When combined with pink, it is associated with eroticism, femininity, and seduction.

The modern English word purple comes from the Old English purpul, which derives from Latin purpura, which, in turn, derives from the Greek πορφύρα (porphura), the name of the Tyrian purple dye manufactured in classical antiquity from a mucus secreted by the spiny dye-murex snail. The first recorded use of the word purple dates to the late 900s AD.

Purple is closely associated with violet. In common usage, both refer to colors that are between red and blue in hue, with purples closer to red and violets closer to blue. Similarly, in the traditional painters' color wheel, purple and violet are both placed between red and blue, with purple is closer to red.

In optics, violet is a spectral color: It refers to the color of any different single wavelength of light on the short wavelength end of the visible spectrum, between approximately 380 and 450 nanometers, whereas purple is the color of various combinations of red, blue, and violet light, some of which humans perceive as similar to violet.

In humans, the L (red) cone in the eye is primarily sensitive to long wavelength light in the yellow-red region of the spectrum, but is also somewhat sensitive to the shorter wavelength violet light that primarily stimulates the S (blue) cone. As a result, when violet light strikes the eye, the S-cone is stimulated strongly and the L-cone is stimulated weakly. Accordingly, strong blue light mixed with weaker red light can mimic this pattern of stimulation, causing humans to perceive colors that the same hue as violet, but with lower saturation.[citation needed] Computer and television screens rely on this phenomenon. Because they use the RGB color model, they cannot produce violet light and instead substitute purple (a mixture of red and blue light).

Purple first appeared in prehistoric art during the Neolithic era. The artists of Pech Merle cave and other Neolithic sites in France used sticks of manganese and hematite powder to draw and paint animals and the outlines of their own hands on the walls of their caves. These works have been dated to between 16,000 and 25,000 BC.

As early as the 15th century BC the citizens of Sidon and Tyre, two cities on the coast of Ancient Phoenicia, (present day Lebanon), were producing purple dye from a sea snail called the spiny dye-murex. Clothing colored with the Tyrian dye was mentioned in both the Iliad of Homer and the Aeneid of Virgil. The deep, rich purple dye made from this snail became known as Tyrian purple.

The process of making the dye was long, difficult and expensive. Thousands of the tiny snails had to be found, their shells cracked, the snail removed. Mountains of empty shells have been found at the ancient sites of Sidon and Tyre. The snails were left to soak, then a tiny gland was removed and the juice extracted and put in a basin, which was placed in the sunlight. There, a remarkable transformation took place. In the sunlight the juice turned white, then yellow-green, then green, then violet, then a red which turned darker and darker. The process had to be stopped at exactly the right time to obtain the desired color, which could range from a bright crimson to a dark purple, the color of dried blood. Then either wool, linen or silk would be dyed. The exact hue varied between crimson and violet, but it was always rich, bright and lasting.

Tyrian purple became the color of kings, nobles, priests and magistrates all around the Mediterranean. It was mentioned in the Old Testament; in the Book of Exodus, God instructs Moses to have the Israelites bring him an offering including cloth "of blue, and purple, and scarlet," to be used in the curtains of the Tabernacle and the garments of priests. The term used for purple in the 4th-century Latin Vulgate version of the Bible passage is purpura or Tyrian purple. In the Iliad of Homer, the belt of Ajax is purple, and the tails of the horses of Trojan warriors are dipped in purple. In the Odyssey, the blankets on the wedding bed of Odysseus are purple. In the poems of Sappho (6th century BC) she celebrates the skill of the dyers of the Greek kingdom of Lydia who made purple footwear, and in the play of Aeschylus (525–456 BC), Queen Clytemnestra welcomes back her husband Agamemnon by decorating the palace with purple carpets. In 950 BC, King Solomon was reported to have brought artisans from Tyre to provide purple fabrics to decorate the Temple of Jerusalem.

Alexander the Great (when giving imperial audiences as the basileus of the Macedonian Empire), the basileus of the Seleucid Empire, and the kings of Ptolemaic Egypt all wore Tyrian purple.

The Roman custom of wearing purple togas may have come from the Etruscans; an Etruscan tomb painting from the 4th century BC shows a nobleman wearing a deep purple and embroidered toga.

In Ancient Rome, the Toga praetexta was an ordinary white toga with a broad purple stripe on its border. It was worn by freeborn Roman boys who had not yet come of age, curule magistrates, certain categories of priests, and a few other categories of citizens.

The Toga picta was solid purple, embroidered with gold. During the Roman Republic, it was worn by generals in their triumphs, and by the Praetor Urbanus when he rode in the chariot of the gods into the circus at the Ludi Apollinares. During the Empire, the toga picta was worn by magistrates giving public gladiatorial games, and by the consuls, as well as by the emperor on special occasions.

During the Roman Republic, when a triumph was held, the general being honored wore an entirely purple toga bordered in gold, and Roman Senators wore a toga with a purple stripe. However, during the Roman Empire, purple was more and more associated exclusively with the emperors and their officers. Suetonius claims that the early emperor Caligula had the King of Mauretania murdered for the splendour of his purple cloak, and that Nero forbade the use of certain purple dyes. In the late empire the sale of purple cloth became a state monopoly protected by the death penalty.

Jesus Christ, in the hours leading up to his crucifixion, was dressed in purple (πορφύρα: porphura) by the Roman garrison to mock his claim to be 'King of the Jews'.

The actual color of Tyrian purple seems to have varied from a reddish to a bluish purple. According to the Roman writer Vitruvius, (1st century BC), the murex coming from northern waters, probably murex brandaris, produced a more bluish color than those of the south, probably murex trunculus. The most valued shades were said to be those closer to the color of dried blood, as seen in the mosaics of the robes of the Emperor Justinian in Ravenna. The chemical composition of the dye from the murex is close to that of the dye from indigo, and indigo was sometimes used to make a counterfeit Tyrian purple, a crime which was severely punished. What seems to have mattered about Tyrian purple was not its color, but its luster, richness, its resistance to weather and light, and its high price.

In modern times, Tyrian purple has been recreated, at great expense. When the German chemist Paul Friedander tried to recreate Tyrian purple in 2008, he needed twelve thousand mollusks to create 1.4 ounces of dye, enough to color a handkerchief. In the year 2000, a gram of Tyrian purple made from ten thousand mollusks according to the original formula cost two thousand euros.

In ancient China, purple was obtained not through the Mediterranean mollusc, but purple gromwell. The dye obtained did not easily adhere to fabrics, making purple fabrics expensive. Purple became a fashionable color in the state of Qi (齊) because its ruler developed a preference for it. As a result, the price of a purple spoke of fabric was in excess of five times that of a plain spoke. His minister, Guan Zhong (管仲), eventually convinced him to relinquish this preference.

Purple was regarded as a secondary color in ancient China. In classical times, secondary colors were not as highly prized as the five primary colors of the Chinese spectrum, and purple was used to allude to impropriety, compared to crimson, which was deemed a primary color and thus symbolized legitimacy. Nevertheless, by the 6th Century, purple was ranked above crimson. Several changes to the ranks of colors occurred after that time.

An Egyptian bowl colored with Egyptian blue, with motifs painted in dark manganese purple. (between 1550 and 1450 BC)

Painting of a man wearing an all-purple toga picta, from an Etruscan tomb (about 350 BC).

Roman men wearing togae praetextae with reddish-purple stripes during a religious procession (1st century BC).

Different purple hues obtained from three types of sea snails

Dye bath of Tyrian purple

Cloth dyed with Tyrian purple. The color could vary from crimson to deep purple, depending upon the type of murex sea-snail and how it was made.

Through the early Christian era, the rulers of the Byzantine Empire continued the use of purple as the imperial color, for diplomatic gifts, and even for imperial documents and the pages of the Bible. Gospel manuscripts were written in gold lettering on parchment that was colored Tyrian purple. Empresses gave birth in the Purple Chamber, and the emperors born there were known as "born to the purple," to separate them from emperors who won or seized the title through political intrigue or military force. Bishops of the Byzantine church wore white robes with stripes of purple, while government officials wore squares of purple fabric to show their rank.

In western Europe, the Emperor Charlemagne was crowned in 800 wearing a mantle of Tyrian purple, and was buried in 814 in a shroud of the same color, which still exists (see below). However, after the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the color lost its imperial status. The great dye works of Constantinople were destroyed, and gradually scarlet, made with dye from the cochineal insect, became the royal color in Europe.

The Empress Theodora, the wife of the Emperor Justinian I, dressed in Tyrian purple. (6th century).

11th-century Byzantine robe, dyed Tyrian purple with murex dye. Creatures are griffins

A medieval depiction of the coronation of the Emperor Charlemagne in 800. The bishops and cardinals wear purple, and the Pope wears white.

A fragment of the shroud in which the Emperor Charlemagne was buried in 814. It was made of gold and Tyrian purple from Constantinople.

In 1464, Pope Paul II decreed that cardinals should no longer wear Tyrian purple, and instead wear scarlet, from kermes and alum, since the dye from Byzantium was no longer available. Bishops and archbishops, of a lower status than cardinals, were assigned the color purple, but not the rich Tyrian purple. They wore cloth dyed first with the less expensive indigo blue, then overlaid with red made from kermes dye.

While purple was worn less frequently by Medieval and Renaissance kings and princes, it was worn by the professors of many of Europe's new universities. Their robes were modeled after those of the clergy, and they often wore square violet or purple caps and robes, or black robes with purple trim. Purple robes were particularly worn by students of divinity.

Purple and violet also played an important part in the religious paintings of the Renaissance. Angels and the Virgin Mary were often portrayed wearing purple or violet robes.

A 12th-century painting of Saint Peter consecrating Hermagoras, wearing purple, as a bishop.

In the Ghent Altarpiece (1422) by Jan van Eyck, the popes and bishops are wearing purple robes.

A purple-clad angel from the Resurrection of Christ by Raphael (1483–1520)

In the 18th century, purple was still worn on occasion by Catherine the Great and other rulers, by bishops and, in lighter shades, by members of the aristocracy, but rarely by ordinary people, because of its high cost. But in the 19th century, that changed.

In 1856, an eighteen-year-old British chemistry student named William Henry Perkin was trying to make a synthetic quinine. His experiments produced instead the first synthetic aniline dye, a purple shade called mauveine, shortened simply to mauve. It took its name from the mallow flower, which is the same color. The new color quickly became fashionable, particularly after Queen Victoria wore a silk gown dyed with mauveine to the Royal Exhibition of 1862. Prior to Perkin's discovery, mauve was a color which only the aristocracy and rich could afford to wear. Perkin developed an industrial process, built a factory, and produced the dye by the ton, so almost anyone could wear mauve. It was the first of a series of modern industrial dyes which completely transformed both the chemical industry and fashion.

Purple was popular with the pre-Raphaelite painters in Britain, including Arthur Hughes, who loved bright colors and romantic scenes.

Portrait of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia, by Fyodor Rokotov. (State Hermitage Museum).

In England, pre-Raphaelite painters like Arthur Hughes were particularly enchanted by purple and violet. This is April Love (1856).

Portrait of Félix Pissarro (1881), by Camille Pissarro

Portrait of Caroline Remy de Guebhard, by Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841–1919).

Order of Leopold founded in 1830.

At the turn of the century, purple was a favorite color of the Austrian painter Gustav Klimt, who flooded his pictures with sensual purples and violets.

In the 20th century, purple retained its historic connection with royalty; George VI (1896–1952), wore purple in his official portrait, and it was prominent in every feature of the coronation of Elizabeth II in 1953, from the invitations to the stage design inside Westminster Abbey. But at the same time, it was becoming associated with social change; with the Women's Suffrage movement for the right to vote for women in the early decades of the century, with Feminism in the 1970s, and with the psychedelic drug culture of the 1960s.

In the early 20th century, purple, green, and white were the colors of the Women's Suffrage movement, which fought to win the right to vote for women, finally succeeding with the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. Later, in the 1970s, in a tribute to the Suffragettes, it became the color of the women's liberation movement.

In the concentration camps of Nazi Germany, prisoners who were members of non-conformist religious groups, such as the Jehovah's Witnesses, were required to wear a purple triangle.

During the 1960s and early 1970s, it was also associated with counterculture, psychedelics, and musicians like Jimi Hendrix with his 1967 song "Purple Haze", or the English rock band of Deep Purple which formed in 1968. Later, in the 1980s, it was featured in the song and album Purple Rain (1984) by the American musician Prince.

The Purple Rain Protest was a protest against apartheid that took place in Cape Town, South Africa on 2 September 1989, in which a police water cannon with purple dye sprayed thousands of demonstrators. This led to the slogan The Purple Shall Govern.

The violet or purple necktie became very popular at the end of the first decade of the 21st century, particularly among political and business leaders. It combined the assertiveness and confidence of a red necktie with the sense of peace and cooperation of a blue necktie, and it went well with the blue business suit worn by most national and corporate leaders.

Gustav Klimt portrait of woman with a purple hat (1912).

George VI (1895–1952) wore purple in his official portrait.

The Coronation portrait of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Edinburgh (1953) has three different shades of purple in the train, curtains and crown.

Program from the Woman Suffrage Procession, a 1913 Women's Suffrage march.

A pennant from the Women's Suffrage movement in the state of Indiana.

Symbol of the Feminist movement in the United States (1970s). The purple color was chosen as a tribute to the Suffragette movement a half-century earlier.

Purple, unlike violet, is not one of the colors of the visible spectrum. It was not one of the colors of the rainbow identified by Isaac Newton, and it does not have its own wavelength of light. For this reason, it is called a non-spectral color. It exists in culture and art, but not, in the same way that violet does, in optics. It is simply a combination, in various proportions, of two primary colors, red and blue.

In color theory, a "purple" is defined as any non-spectral color between violet and red (excluding violet and red themselves). The spectral colors violet and indigo are not purples according to color theory, but they are purples according to common English usage since they are perceived to be similar.

In the traditional color wheel long used by painters, purple is usually placed between crimson and violet. In a slightly different variation, on the color wheel, it is placed between magenta and violet. This shade is sometimes called electric purple (See shades of purple).

In the RGB color model, named for the colors red, green, and blue, used to create all the colors on a computer screen or television, the range of purples is created by mixing red and blue light of different intensities on a black screen. The standard HTML color purple is created by red and blue light of equal intensity, at a brightness that is halfway between full power and darkness.

In color printing, purple is sometimes represented by the color magenta, or sometimes by mixing magenta with red or blue. It can also be created by mixing just red and blue alone, but in that case the purple is less bright, with lower saturation or intensity. A less bright purple can also be created with light or paint by adding a certain quantity of the third primary color (green for light or yellow for pigment).

On a chromaticity diagram, the straight line connecting the extreme spectral colors (red and violet) is known as the line of purples (or 'purple boundary'); it represents one limit of human color perception. The color magenta used in the CMYK printing process is near the center of the line of purples, but most people associate the term "purple" with a somewhat bluer tone, such as is displayed by the color "electric purple" (a color also directly on the line of purples), shown below. Some common confusion exists concerning the color names "purple" and "violet". Purple is a mixture of red and blue light, whereas violet is a spectral color.

On the CIE xy chromaticity diagram, violet is on the curved edge in the lower left, while purples are on the straight line connecting the extreme colors red and violet; this line is known as the line of purples, or the purple line.

On a computer or television screen, purple colors are created by mixing red and blue light. This is called the RGB color model.

The CIE xy chromaticity diagram

During the Middle Ages, artists usually made purple by combining red and blue pigments; most often blue azurite or lapis-lazuli with red ochre, cinnabar, or minium. They also combined lake colors made by mixing dye with powder; using woad or indigo dye for the blue, and dye made from cochineal for the red.

Manganese pigments were used in the neolithic paintings in the Lascaux cave, France.

Hematite was often used as the red-purple color in the cave paintings of Neolithic artists.

A sample of purpurite, or manganese phosphate, from the Packrat Mine in Southern California.

A swatch of cobalt violet, popular among the French impressionists.

Manganese violet is a synthetic pigment invented in the mid-19th century.

Quinacridone violet, a synthetic organic pigment sold under many different names.

The most famous purple dye in the ancient world was Tyrian purple, made from a type of sea snail called the murex, found around the Mediterranean. (See history section above).

In western Polynesia, residents of the islands made a purple dye similar to Tyrian purple from the sea urchin. In Central America, the inhabitants made a dye from a different sea snail, the purpura, found on the coasts of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The Mayans used this color to dye fabric for religious ceremonies, while the Aztecs used it for paintings of ideograms, where it symbolized royalty.

In the Middle Ages, those who worked with blue and black dyes belonged to separate guilds from those who worked with red and yellow dyes, and were often forbidden to dye any other colors than those of their own guild. Most purple fabric was made by the dyers who worked with red, and who used dye from madder or cochineal, so Medieval violet colors were inclined toward red.[citation needed]

Orcein, or purple moss, was another common purple dye. It was known to the ancient Greeks and Hebrews, and was made from a Mediterranean lichen called archil or dyer's moss (Roccella tinctoria), combined with an ammoniac, usually urine. Orcein began to achieve popularity again in the 19th century, when violet and purple became the color of demi-mourning, worn after a widow or widower had worn black for a certain time, before he or she returned to wearing ordinary colors.

From the Middle Ages onward, purple and violet dyes for the clothing of common people were often made from the blackberry or other red fruit of the genus rubus, or from the mulberry. All of these dyes were more reddish than bluish, and faded easily with washing and exposure to sunlight.

A popular new dye which arrived in Europe from the New World during the Renaissance was made from the wood of the logwood tree (Haematoxylum campechianum), which grew in Spanish Mexico. Depending on the different minerals added to the dye, it produced a blue, red, black or, with the addition of alum, a purple color, It made a good color, but, like earlier dyes, it did not resist sunlight or washing.

In the 18th century, chemists in England, France and Germany began to create the first synthetic dyes. Two synthetic purple dyes were invented at about the same time. Cudbear is a dye extracted from orchil lichens that can be used to dye wool and silk, without the use of mordant. Cudbear was developed by Dr Cuthbert Gordon of Scotland: production began in 1758, The lichen is first boiled in a solution of ammonium carbonate. The mixture is then cooled and ammonia is added and the mixture is kept damp for 3–4 weeks. Then the lichen is dried and ground to powder. The manufacture details were carefully protected, with a ten-feet high wall being built around the manufacturing facility, and staff consisting of Highlanders sworn to secrecy.

French purple was developed in France at about the same time. The lichen is extracted by urine or ammonia. Then the extract is acidified, the dissolved dye precipitates and is washed. Then it is dissolved in ammonia again, the solution is heated in air until it becomes purple, then it is precipitated with calcium chloride; the resulting dye was more solid and stable than other purples.

Cobalt violet is a synthetic pigment that was invented in the second half of the 19th century, and is made by a similar process as cobalt blue, cerulean blue and cobalt green. It is the violet pigment most commonly used today by artists.

Mauveine, also known as aniline purple and Perkin's mauve, was the first synthetic organic chemical dye, discovered serendipitously in 1856. Its chemical name is 3-amino-2,±9-dimethyl-5-phenyl-7-(p-tolylamino)phenazinium acetate.

Fuchsine was another synthetic dye made shortly after mauveine. It produced a brilliant fuchsia color.

In the 1950s, a new family of purple and violet synthetic organic pigments called quinacridone came onto the market. It had originally been discovered in 1896, but were not synthetized until 1936, and not manufactured until the 1950s. The colors in the group range from deep red to bluish purple in color, and have the molecular formula C20H12N2O2. They have strong resistance to sunlight and washing, and are widely used today in oil paints, water colors, and acrylics, as well as in automobile coatings and other industrial coatings.

Blackberries were sometimes used to make purple dye in the Middle Ages.

This lichen, growing on a tree in Scotland, was used in the 18th century to make a common purple dye called Cudbear.

A sample of silk dyed with the original mauveine dye.

A sample of fuchsine dye

The male violet-backed starling sports a very bright, iridescent purple plumage.

The purple frog is a species of amphibian found in India.

Pseudanthias pascalus or purple queenfish.

The purple sea urchin from Mexico.

A purple heron in flight (South Africa).

A purple finch (North America).

The Lorius domicella, or purple-naped lory, from Indonesia.

Certain grapes, eggplants, pansies and other fruits, vegetables and flowers may appear purple due to the presence of natural pigments called anthocyanins. These pigments are found in the leaves, roots, stems, vegetables, fruits and flowers of all plants. They aid photosynthesis by blocking harmful wavelengths of light that would damage the leaves. In flowers, the purple anthocyanins help attract insects who pollinate the flowers. Not all anthocyanins are purple; they vary in color from red to purple to blue, green, or yellow, depending upon the level of their pH.

The purple colors of this cauliflower, grapes, fruits, vegetables and flowers comes from natural pigments called anthocyanins.

Anthocyanins range in color from red to purple to green, blue and yellow, depending upon the level of their pH.

Anthocyanins also account for the purple color in these copper beech trees, and in purple autumn leaves.

Anthocyanins produce the purple color in blood oranges.

A purple pansy.

“Blue” hydrangea is often actually purple.

An artichoke flower in blossom in Dalat, Vietnam

Iris germanica flowers

Syringa vulgaris, or lilac blossoms

Medicago sativa, known as alfalfa in the U.S. and lucerne in the U.K.

The Aster alpinus, or alpine aster, is native to the European mountains, including the Alps, while a subspecies is found in Canada and the United States.

Lavender flowers.

A purple rose.

Wisteria is a pale purple color.

salsify

Purple Mountain near Killarney, Ireland.

Purple Mountain in Yellowstone National Park.

Purple Mountain, Nanjing.

It has been observed that the greater the distance between a viewers eyes and mountains, the lighter and more blue or purple they will appear. This phenomenon, long recognized by Leonardo da Vinci and other painters, is called aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective. The more distant the mountains are, the less contrast the eye sees between the mountains and the sky.

The bluish color is caused by an optical effect called Rayleigh scattering. The sunlit sky is blue because air scatters short-wavelength light more than longer wavelengths. Since blue light is at the short wavelength end of the visible spectrum, it is more strongly scattered in the atmosphere than long wavelength red light. The result is that the human eye perceives blue when looking toward parts of the sky other than the sun.

At sunrise and sunset, the light is passing through the atmosphere at a lower angle, and traveling a greater distance through a larger volume of air. Much of the green and blue is scattered away, and more red light comes to the eye, creating the colors of the sunrise and sunset and making the mountains look purple.

The phenomenon is referenced in the song "America the Beautiful", where the lyrics refer to "purple mountains' majesty" among other features of the United States landscape. A Crayola crayon called Purple Mountain Majesty in reference to the lyric was first formulated in 1993.

The more distant mountains are, the lighter and more blue they are. This is called atmospheric perspective or aerial perspective.

Sunset at Auke Bay, Alaska. Thanks to Rayleigh scattering, the mountains appear purple.

Julius Pollux, a Greek grammarian who lived in the second century AD, attributed the discovery of purple to the Phoenician god and guardian of the city of Tyre, Heracles. According to his account, while walking along the shore with the nymph Tyrus, the god's dog bit into a murex shell, causing his mouth to turn purple. The nymph subsequently requested that Heracles create a garment for her of that same color, with Heracles obliging her demands giving birth to Tyrian purple.

In Europe, since the time that the Roman emperors wore a Tyrian purple (purpura) toga praetexta, purple has been the color most associated with power and royalty. The British Royal Family and other European royalty still use it as a ceremonial color on special occasions. In Japan, purple is associated with the emperor and Japanese aristocracy.

A purple postage stamp honored Queen Elizabeth II in 1958

Queen Margrethe II of Denmark in 2010.

In the West, purple or violet is the color most associated with piety and religious faith. In AD 1464, shortly after the Muslim conquest of Constantinople, which terminated the supply of Tyrian purple to Roman Catholic Europe, Pope Paul II decreed that cardinals should henceforth wear scarlet instead of purple, the scarlet being dyed with expensive cochineal. Bishops were assigned the color amaranth, being a pale and pinkish purple made then from a less-expensive mixture of indigo and cochineal.

In the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic liturgy, purple symbolizes penitence; Anglican and Catholic priests wear a purple stole when they hear confession and a purple stole and chasuble during Advent and Lent. Since the Second Vatican Council of 1962–5, priests may wear purple vestments, but may still wear black ones, when officiating at funerals. The Roman Missal permits black, purple (violet), or white vestments for the funeral Mass. White is worn when a child dies before the age of reason. Students and faculty of theology also wear purple academic dress for graduations and other university ceremonies.

Purple is also often worn by senior pastors of Protestant churches and bishops of the Anglican Communion.

In the Roman Catholic Church, cardinals now wear scarlet and bishops wear amaranth.

Katharine Jefferts Schori, Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church of the United States

The color purple is also associated with royalty in Christianity, being one of the three traditional offices of Jesus Christ, i. e. king, although such a symbolism was assumed from the earlier Roman association or at least also employed by the ancient Romans.

In Europe and America, purple is the color most associated with vanity, extravagance, and individualism. Among the seven major sins, it represents vanity. It is a color which is used to attract attention.

Purple is the color most often associated with the artificial and the unconventional. It is the major color that occurs the least frequently in nature, and was the first color to be synthesized.

Purple is the color most associated with ambiguity. Like other colors made by combining two primary colors, it is seen as uncertain and equivocal.

In Britain, purple is sometimes associated with mourning. In Victorian times, close relatives wore black for the first year following a death ("deep mourning"), and then replaced it with purple or dark green trimmed with black. This is rarely practised today.

Han purple and Han blue were synthetic colors made by artisans in China during the Han dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD) or even earlier.

A Japanese woman in a kimono.

Emperor Komyo of Japan. (1322–1380). Purple was the color of the aristocracy in Japan and China.

The color purple plays a significant role in the traditions of engineering schools across Canada.[citation needed] Purple is also the color of the Engineering Corp in the British Military.[citation needed]

"Roses are red, violets are purple
Sugar is sweet and so is maple surple"

Purple is sometimes associated with the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. It is the symbolic color worn on Spirit Day, a commemoration that began in 2010 to show support for young people who are bullied because of their sexual orientation. Purple is closely associated with bisexuality, largely in part to the bisexual pride flag which combines pink – representing homosexuality – and blue – representing heterosexuality – to create the bisexual purple.[citation needed] The purple hand is another symbol sometimes used by the LGBT community during parades and demonstrations.

The British chocolate company Cadbury chose purple as it was Queen Victoria’s favourite color. The company trademarked the color purple for chocolates with registrations in 1995 and 2004. However, the validity of these trademarks is the matter of an ongoing legal dispute following objections by Nestlé.

Flag of Dominica, features a purple sisserou parrot.

Flag of Nicaragua, although at this size the purple band of the rainbow is nearly indistinguishable.

Flag of the second Spanish republic (1931–39), known in Spanish as la tricolor, still widely used by left-wing political organizations.

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I cannot find my last pinned b4 my purple hair this is tragic
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RT @vacuum_chan: pink and purple 🌸💜
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To then destroy my hair further with a burgundy/ purple look ready for college... 2018
0
@M1AWASTAKEN linda and purple!!
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RT @Cerra__: I fax my nudes like it’s 1987
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RT @BigHitEnt: < SUGA's Notes > 🎵 #BTS #방탄소년단 #BTS_BE #BTS_Telepathy #잠시
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@Hollow__Purple Thank u thnk u soooo much you are awesome 😭💖💖
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@M1AWASTAKEN jet & purple!!!
0
For this month we have Meido Neko by @i5371_mto Sharo by @Nami_nyaa Dido by @rimuuarts Formidable by @kurigura3…
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RT @EddyMissamou: PURPLE DRIP 😈💜 Et merceee One Way pour les travaux ✨✨
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RT @JaybondThe: @glacier_clear here a cute picture #oc Kobold & mind pocky hangout, love your art keep up the good work 💖🌟
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@je4nette_m4rie But they’re brown!! Love the purple!!
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WATCH: RBW’s New Girl Group #PURPLE_KISS Previews “Can We Talk Again” MV Through Powerful Teaser Video…
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On this day in 2008, the #Lakers completed a trade that would bring center @paugasol to Los Angeles from Memphis. H…
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legitimately, my feet are fucked. they are a deep purple and i can’t move them all that great..... haha rip
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RT @Haanie_twt: [ #ARMYSeIcaDay #ARSD ] ♡ i love (purple) you ✨ 💜 @BTS_twt
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@Lil_SadTobey ur epic ily
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RT @BreakingRadz: It's Tuesday my dudes. Thinking with the miniatures I started last night, we go for a cream purple black with purple silv…
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@aerilium — life. I will be the devil to your angelic being. My last request to you Aerith, is to 𝐥𝐢𝐯𝐞. Until we me…
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i don’t want his cock. i want to BE his cock. i wanna know what it’s like to be natures biggest treasure. gods most…
0
@negative_purple omg im looking 👀 how does it work
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RT @Muhamz_: Blackseed (Nigella sativa) is a small flowering shrub with purple or white-tinged flowers that grows in Eastern Europe, the Mi…
7
Jaekyuk is the sweetest 🥺
0
この前の占いのやつ見てからもう5人揃わないんじゃないかってちょっと心の隅っこで思い始めてて勝手に未来想像して泣きそうになってる
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@purple_love0309 웅웅!!☺️❣️
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@swissWRLD Spanglish was on repeat 2019, Purple Moncler, Cake, and Bullet for My Valentine was on repeat 2020, now it’s Carry It
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RT @binnie1201: I MEAN LIKE YOU CAN'T DYE YOUR HAIR IN PINK, PURPLE AND BLUE IF YOU DIDN'T BLEACH YOUR HAIR RIGHT?? WE'VE GOTTEN BLONDE SOO…
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i know it’s petty or whatever but making bullies feel like shit is a purple-heart level pastime
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RT @binnie1201: I MEAN LIKE YOU CAN'T DYE YOUR HAIR IN PINK, PURPLE AND BLUE IF YOU DIDN'T BLEACH YOUR HAIR RIGHT?? WE'VE GOTTEN BLONDE SOO…
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RT @LensRarin: "แจกค่าแจกก" ♥️✨ ใครค่าสายตา 0.0 มาเล่นกิจกรรมกันเถอะะ แจกเลนส์ฟรี 1 คู่ รุ่นยอดฮิตของร้าน ☆ Papa Purple ( DIA 14.00 ) พ…
10
@KermithyFrog my purple nano is holding on for its life in my old ass iHome alarm clock charger thing, i will not u…
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Season 8 today May the RNG gods bless you May all your shots hit May you get purple armor and your favorite l…
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Deep Purple ft. Ronnie James Dio (Live with the London Symphony Orchestra)
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WATCH: RBW's New Girl Group #PURPLEKISS Flaunts Their Vocals In Expressive "Can We Talk Again" MV…
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@H0W2DR34M light blue purple and yellow
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RT @starkindler1: User @bts_twt has tweeted 559 purple heart emojis, the earliest being on 2015-03-17. The tweet with the most purple hea…
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RT @Nickyspaulding: Abstract, Floral, decor, Red, Purple Title Explosion of Petals #art #acrylic #painting
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RT @BTSPurpleBullet: 🎧 THREAD | PLAYLISTS MEMBROS Playlists temáticas de cada membro do #BTS + álbum BE para aniversários! @BTS_twt Siga…
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why does @goodguyfitz look like the purple teletubby?
0
Given we’re short in quality CBs and CB partnerships, i can’t see any doubt why Southgate wouldn’t take Stones to S…
0
#evilangel First DP, Scene #01 Purple Bitch @lure_lady
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Good night Purple💜 have sweet🍬 dreams😴💭.
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@purple_ati عالیه
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@Silllyca purple
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@thechewbecka Because as denoted by my X’s we are blue and BD (burger day) is purple and there are four days before…
0
‘Purple Skies’ #np
0
@theIittlejxxker 350k?
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@alejetta_777 @Anittabere16 @JaniceHeysen @saki5w @MichiLaBarbara @AKonata800 @baddoblas @SimetriaDeSam @rubiusahorcame @leiameit A
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For a couple of months, I’ve been translating endless building instructions. Blue, purple, and red yarns, gold-plat…
0
RT @starkindler1: User @bts_twt has tweeted 559 purple heart emojis, the earliest being on 2015-03-17. The tweet with the most purple hea…
68
@Gr8fulchik2 @Missin_Florida @RosannaPhillip @sdr_medco @ResisterChic @Ian_purple_ @GabbieRose26 @sergeivote…
0
42 trillion dollar diamond. I’ve surpassed Elon. I’ve outdone the purple hair’ed one. 🎷
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On this day in 2007, Prince wows at the Super Bowl halftime show, closing with an rendition of ‘Purple Rain.’ #RIP
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//GIVEAWAY// Need some extra comfort for you and a special someone? We're giving away a Valentines Day Gift bund…
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@ghostinlovs yes and purple
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RT @MarchForScience: For those not familiar with the demographics of Chicago, the wealthy, white people live in those deep purple parts in…
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RT @kjmk625: 大晴マジで学園ドラマで勉強教えるシーン撮ってほしい相当ヤバそうやけど絶対似合う(大倉くんのシーンを観ながら)
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a kid at work asked if i was a youtuber because i had purple hair lmao
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RT @JagannathMrtn: Zach Lavine says he would like to play with LeBron and a dominant big man. And watch how he pauses when Max suggests LA.…
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RT @Purple: //GIVEAWAY// Need some extra comfort for you and a special someone? We're giving away a Valentines Day Gift bundle: 2 Harmon…
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RT @MyBeachStore: Size 8.25 Sapphire Tanzanite and Purple Amethyst Ring Sterling Silver 925 Multi-colour real natural gemstones wedding bri…
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RT @sadsigns_: Pink or Purple? 🌈
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RT @Purple: //GIVEAWAY// Need some extra comfort for you and a special someone? We're giving away a Valentines Day Gift bundle: 2 Harmon…
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RT @Purple: Contest ends 2/8 at 11:59pm MST. Winner will be picked 2/9 and notified via DM. Available to US residents only. Must be 18 or o…
3
@tiicotico This feels like the gender equivalent of when racist people go "I don't care if you're black, white, blue, pink, purple" etc
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@SentinelCentral Leadup to the event: The Zero Point starts to destabilize, glowing purple. Storm FX becomes intens…
0
@purple_sparkll СПАСИБООООООООО, ЛЮБЛЮ
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@Purple @flower_cover
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@stella_jlu @Jeep @KricketJeeper @KrawlZone @jeepingmo1 @Thejeepboss @BarbieJeepGrl89 @DirtHammers @fwmag…
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@bluee_purple What does Kw mean i'm sorry that im stupid 😅
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RT @Purple7Cafe: Shout and say hello to Hope World 💚❤️ Come visit Purple 7 and celebrate Hobiuary with us! See you soon 🥺✨ **Don’t forget…
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Twitch's purple screen of death is now messing up stream embeds directly inside video games, as seen here in the PU…
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Bi, purple
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@_holixri_ YOURE SO PRETTY DO PURPLE AND PINK!!!!
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24시 빠른입금서비스 {O1O-6835-5969} ( 카톡: JM5969 ) near 휴대폰핸드폰모바일소액결제현금화 long 카드한도현금화 insist 신용카드현금 separate 콘텐츠이용료현금화 m…
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@enbykeiji Straight, purple, red, blue(crip), black, green
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bc remember when mania era started and we all had purple lights? iconic
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Hace 25 años se lanzó "Purpendicular" de Deep Purple. Repásalo completo acá
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@milkyhyodo hi r u on NA ? i have brown and purple extras nd need a yellow c:
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@EmojiMashupBot He ate purple
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red, blonde, pink, purple, orange
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listening to purple kiss’s godly vocals is making me ascend
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@enbykeiji Straight, purple
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@dropdeadlewis I went a pink, a purple and a brown toned gloss. Nabbed Cookie dough fetish, no shame and please for…
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@ipurpleu_10 Знаешь что? Хм.. Субин!
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@latimespolitics @madrid_mike The Greene deal just got a purple eye!
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RT @AlexelcapoOoc:
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the purple one is better
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RT @lcvxiao: kamera even help ! (blue item) dandelions (usually gives brown) mint (usually gives blue) small lamp grass (usually gives b…
1
//GIVEAWAY// We've got couples covered with our limited-edition Sleepy Jones + Purple pajamas this Valentine's sea…
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Don’t front like roads something that your built for Cos you could die for something you wouldn’t kill for Purp…
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"So what are we doing for Valentin-" "Purple Rain is on HBO Max." "Say no more."
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밀린 일기 쓰는데 5일부터 10일까지 머 했는지 기억이 없어서 클남
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purple my fav colour of course i have to get that version
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@akistars1 いいですね🍄
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RT @badkindawhy: HELLO HELLO HELLO @ShawnMendes @Camila_Cabello CAN I GET A SELFIE PURPLE RED AND YELLOW I CANT WAIT TO SEE IT HEAD DOWN ON…
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@red_a_purple 人類多少強引じゃないとって地球生命体学で習った
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RT @kaniegg: 【新しい動画です】 夜眠れないお客様の為に、よく眠れる一口ゼリーをつくりました。 バクバク食べると次の日に寝坊してしまうので、おひとつだけお食べくださいね。 蟹でした、バハハイ🦀 #蟹猫
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@bts_bighit This is so beautiful Taehyungie
0
47th ANNIVERSARY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! DEEP PURPLE / Burn 紫の炎 [February 15th, 1974 wiki / 1974 disc…
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RT @Jeongguklogy: Los números 6 13 y el color púrpura se han vuelto realmente importantes tanto para BTS como para ARMY, BTS en presentacio…
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RT @thinkiamsad: Someone vandalized the Left 4 Dead wiki, for seemingly no reason, with an *extensive* article about a nonsensical nonexist…
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@syuraibrhm @Frunchiemy I love PURPLE 💜 ! #syurabaikhati #Frunchie Beli frunchie , Buat tamu, Sejuk hatiku, Meli…
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RT @wooflings: A thrilling series of events
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RT @chimggukv: “roxo é a última cor do arco-íris, então significa que eu vou confiar e amar você por muito tempo” o i purple you 🥺
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@Soren_tomori je deteste ce jeux
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@yeetiguess1 chemistry’s purple tbh
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RT @thinkiamsad: Someone vandalized the Left 4 Dead wiki, for seemingly no reason, with an *extensive* article about a nonsensical nonexist…
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RT @crvtwdz: the guy with purple hair is KIM YOHAN from WEi.
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@PerAnkh2 @0jenzee0 Roses are red Violets are purple Do not correct Thanatos Or soon you'll be durple
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❄⚠️WINTER STORM UPDATE: The threat level has increased for areas in purple, which includes the Jackson Metro. These…
94
Week of 2/14 in Aries: You are even closer now to a decision. Still, there is more work to be done. Purple arrows p…
489
Variety: ‘Cusp’ Review: In a Clear-Eyed Sundance Doc, Three Small-Town Texas Teenagers Act Out Their Alienation Aga…
0
RT @Nue_Nancy: โฮ๊ะๆๆ เจอ skechers คู่นี้ที่ทำงาน มือ 1 นะฮะ ไม่เคยใส่ซื้อมาตอนเล่น ทสปด ถ้ารางวัลเป็นอันนี้สนใจกันป่าวอ่ะคะ? เดี๋ยว tar…
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RT @heartclue: purple neptune october 30, 1998
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RT @steponmetay: debut is blue and green. 1989 is beige and LIGHT purple. argue with the wall.
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@Empty_VBottles Honestly, when I was almost done, the background was originally purple— I then looked back at the c…
0
RT @OnlyEkehandbag3: #MercyLamboEke EXCEPTIONAL MERCY EKE Retweet for the purple Like for the white Comment for both
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みんなからの匿名質問を募集中! こんな質問に答えてるよ ● [推しとえっちできる権利]… ● 私はイアソンとアキレウスの関係… ● 好きな絵本を教えてください。 … ● 質問と感想になってしまいすみま… #質問箱…
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RT @ddukINSEO: 🚨🚨MEWLIONS🚨🚨 Please do not just RT articles. Open and read them. That engagement is very important! If GOOD DAY MV is also…
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RT @ZahranCR: Inspection 😋 Purple sun bird from the capital of Pakistan 🇵🇰
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RT @DDs_twt: 🐿HBD 호석 생일 이벤트🐿 물품 : 일본 한정판 핑크 망이인형 당발:호석날 참여방법 : ONLY RT(팔로❌❌❌❌) 주소 주셔도 괜찮다,후기 써주실수 있다! 하는분만 참여하주세요,, 구매는 완료했으나 일본에서 물건너 오…
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@purple_alys in jungkook's wallet hahaa
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@notagoldrush STILL THE FILTER MADE IT PURPLE
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RT @HermanLi: Purple or black strap and why for this ESP Custom #guitar? 🤔
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RT @_sasimoon: เด่กไทยงง พ่อแม่ฝรั่งลงโทษลูกด้วยการกักบริเวณทำไม นั่นเป็นบทลงโทษเหรอ เพราะปกติพ่อแม่เด่กไทยก็ไม่ให้ไปไหนอยู่แล้ว
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RT @poetastrologers: Week of 2/14 in Aries: You are even closer now to a decision. Still, there is more work to be done. Purple arrows poin…
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RT @lllnnn_tmnt: Valentine's Day E-Card featuring the Purple 💜👭❤
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RT @sakusya2honda: ヤタガラス
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Find the purple decor inspiration that fits you at insplosion.com
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ριntєrєѕt • @αlαchrуmσsєfαtє
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#aesthetic #purple #aesthetic #aesthetictumblr #aestheticedit #purpleaesthetic #purple #lilac #indigo #lavender #grunge #grungeaesthetic
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Boujee Purple Wall Collage Kit. Digital Download 50 Pics. Dorm | Etsy
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Pantone 2018 - Tudo Orna
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Lavender lovely purple
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21 Fondos de pantalla para ser toda una chica Tumblr | recreoviral
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www.thepaletails.com Neon. Purple aesthetic. Pastel purples.
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Zhou Wendou, 'Fragile State - Purple,' 2013, de Sarthe Gallery
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패스 달라고 해라 쪼므ㅡㅡㅡㅡ 그리고 부스케츠 빼자 부스케츠 빼고 비달 알레냐 이런애들 넣어 공격수는 빨리 못빼더라도 교체좀 해라 아 나 세르지 팔굼치 공격 당했ㄴ네 먼저 변화 줘라 이제 또 기다리지 말고 수아레즈 언제 교체 당하냐? 챔스에서 4년간 원정골이 없는데 교체 2장만쓰고 원정골 안밀어 붙일 만큼 그정도야? 리그 경쟁 다끝났는데 말콤 보아텡 왜샀냐
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purple Pinterest Ideas
  • purple hair
  • purple aesthetic
  • purple nails
  • purple wallpaper
  • purple eye makeup
  • purple acrylic nails
  • purple hair highlights
Feb 13, 2021 16:57
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🌊🌅.......#instatravel #trip #photography #photo #photooftheday #photos #travelphotography #nature #photographers #photograph #streetphotography #instaphoto #photochallenge #best #bestoftheday #bestphoto#art...#baku#azerbaijan#purple#sunset #beach#nature#amazing..#lightroom #lightroomedits #lightroompresets #vscoedit #edit #colour
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#colour #travelphotography #edit #azerbaijan #instaphoto
Jul 7, 2020 17:13
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Sourcils @anastasiabeverlyhills Anti cerne @toofaced @lagirlfrance @tartecosmetics Yeux @bperfectcosmetics @juviasplace Paillettes @amazon Base @milk Fond de teint @maccosmeticsfrance Baking @hudabeauty Contouring @beccacosmetics_france Blush @juviasplace Poudre @thekatvond Fixateur @makeupforever Highlighter @mmmmitchell Lèvres @kikomilano @nanad.cosmetics Pinceau @amsbeauty.paris @adjinaya #makeup #makeupartist #MUA #pink #gold #purple #rose #violet #slay #flawless #beauty #juvias #kiko #sephora #tarte #mufe #toofaced #maquillage #mbeni #ngazidja #comores #comoriangirl
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#pink #gold #rose #comores #kiko
Jul 7, 2020 17:11
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#followmyrabbits #graffiti #graffitiart #graffitiworld #fmr #spraypaintart #spraypaintartist #purple #fashion #happy #eye #rabbitsofinstagram #rabbit #art #details #followforfollowback #follow4followback #f4f #worldwide #travel #design #designer #bristolstreetart
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#eye #spraypaintart #happy #rabbitsofinstagram #bristolstreetart
Jul 7, 2020 17:11
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💜𝖠𝖻𝗂𝗍𝗈 𝖯𝖾𝗇𝖾𝗅𝗈𝗉𝖾💜 𝖠𝖻𝗂𝗍𝗈 𝗆𝗈𝗋𝖻𝗂𝖽𝗈 ,𝗂𝗇 𝗅𝖾𝗀𝗀𝖾𝗋𝖺 𝗌𝖾𝗍𝖺 𝗉𝖾𝗓𝗓𝗈 𝗎𝗇𝗂𝖼𝗈 !! 25€ #latoscanashop #shop #dress #gipsy #longdress #purple #summer #flowers #girl #shoponline
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#dress #latoscanashop #gipsy #shop #summer
Jul 7, 2020 17:11
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Médusée! 🌊 Vous aimez la couleur ? 🖌 #tattooedlegs #inkedtattoo #tattoolife #tattooedgirl #inkedgirl #jellyfish #jellyfishtattoo #holidays #meduse #pink #blue #purple #tattooartists #colortattoo #watercolor #aquarelle #sea #witches #nancytattooer #nancyville #alicevonskullrabbit #placestanislas #plouf
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#holidays #nancytattooer #nancyville #purple #inkedgirl
Jul 7, 2020 17:11
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•Mermaid vibes today 😋 • • • • • #makeuplook #makeup #makeuptutorial #maccosmetics #morphepalette #morphebrushes #morphebabe #muas #makeupartist #eyeshadow #pictorial #mermaid #purple #blue #eyes #gainpost #gains #followtrain #eyemakeup #anastasiabeverlyhills #morphexjamescharles #jamescharlespalette #jamescharles
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#makeupartist #eyes #blue #maccosmetics #makeup
Jul 7, 2020 17:11
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Gọi anh là mlem 😗 . . . Vì nếu thiếu em anh chỉ là thằng ml 🤣 #ootd #purple #purplenails #vsco #vscovietnam #hellostranger #likeforlikes #instaphoto #instadaily #Phuongsfoodmap #coffeevibes
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#vscovietnam #purple #coffeevibes #instaphoto #purplenails
Jul 7, 2020 17:12
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Selamat Kim taehyung telah menjadi the 100 most handsome man of 2020 dan telah menjadi peringkat pertma👏👏 *yg koar bts oplas mna sni gw tampol mulutnya ~sas - - - Follow: @indomy_baseadm #bts #btsedits #btsmemes #bangtansonyeondan #army #indonesia #btsimagines #army #armystrong #armylife #bighitentertainment #armybts #purple #borahae #borahae💜 #bighitbts #bighitofficial #bighitfamily
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#bts #btsimagines #bighitfamily #purple #btsedits
Jul 7, 2020 17:12
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .#حب #سعادة #قلب #أمل #اهتمام #هو #هي #تفاؤل #ابتسامة #بهجة #قوة #بنفسج #بنفسجية #بنفسجي #بنفسجيات #كتابات #اقتباسات #اكسبلور #purple #love #power #بنات #أحلام #dream # عناق #ألم_الحب #بريق #عينان #جمال #حضن #صداقة
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#dream #love #power #purple
Jul 7, 2020 17:12
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Heres a cute teddy bear fluffy cushion with purple and honey colours. I love colours combos that you may not think of putting together and I swear I used to have a dress these exact shades!!. Anyway, this is one of the vintage boujaad cushions in my store. Link in my bio. #madaboutvintage #combiningcolours #colourclash #purple #honeycoloured #teddybearsoft #vintagecushions #sellingwhatilove #iamnotafraidofcolour
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#vintagecushions #colourclash #madaboutvintage #teddybearsoft #combiningcolours